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Bio156, Unit 15


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The goal of the Human Genome Project is to:
map human DNA and identify the location of all genes
When bacteria take up DNA fragments from the fluid surrounding a cell, it is called
When a virus transfers a fragment of DNA from one bacterial host to another, it is called:
When two bacterial cells come together, and pass a DNA fragment from one cell to another, it is called:
When a new DNA fragment is integrated into a bacterial cell, the new DNA:
replaces the equivalent portion of the old DNA
A small circular DNA molecule in bacteria that is separate from the larger bacterial chromosome is called:
a plasmid
When a plasmid carries extra genes to another cell, it is acting as:
a vector
In many bacteria, genes that confer resistance to antibiotics are carried on:
R plasmids
Which of the following human activities has contributed to an increase in the number of bacteria having R plasmids?
both A and B are correct
A. heavy use of antibiotics in medicine
B. use of antibiotics as agricultural feed supplements
Which of the following is a step in creating a recombinant bacterium?
all of the above
A. A DNA fragment containing the gene of interest is inserted into the plasmid, producing recombinant DNA.
B. The bacterium is allowed to take up the plasmid by transformation.
C. The genetically engineered, recombinant bacterium is then cloned to generate many copies of the gene.
D. The bacteria can produce proteins from the gene, and the proteins can be harvested.
Which of the following is a possible use of recombinant bacteria?
all of the above
A. A gene for pest resistance can be inserted into plants.
B. A gene can be used to create a strain of bacteria that can clean up toxic waste.
C. Large amounts of protein can be produced that will help dissolve blood clots in heart attack therapy.
D. Large amounts of protein can be produced that can be used to make snow form at higher temperature.
Restriction enzymes:
cut DNA at specific sites
Sticky ends" are:
single-stranded regions of DNA with unpaired nucleotides
After being cut with a restriction enzyme, the DNA fragments are "pasted" back together with:
DNA ligase
DNA ligase binds:
nucleotides together
The feature of "sticky ends" that makes them especially useful in DNA recombination is their ability to:
form hydrogen-bonded base pairs with complementary single-stranded stretches of DNA
A collection of cloned DNA fragments obtained while creating recombinant bacteria is called:
a genomic library
Which of the following can serve as DNA vectors for genetic recombination
both A and C are correct
bacterial plasmids
What enzyme is used to create a strand of DNA from RNA?
reverse transcriptase
An advantage of using reverse transcriptase to prepare a gene for cloning is that:
the resulting DNA strand will lack introns
A probe is:
a piece of radioactively labeled DNA that is used to find a specific gene
Gel electrophoresis is commonly used to sort:
only B and C are correct
B. proteins
C. nucleic acids
Gel electrophoresis physically sorts molecules based on:
size and electrical charge of the molecule
Why do DNA molecules move toward the positive pole during electrophoresis?
the phosphate groups of the DNA are negatively charged
A chromosomal landmark whose inheritance can be studied is called:
a genetic marker
Cutting DNA with a particular restriction enzyme produces ___ that can be separated by gel electrophoresis.
restriction fragments
Restriction fragments differ in:
Restriction fragment analysis can be used to detect:
the harmful alleles that cause disease
The purpose of PCR is:
amplify DNA in a test tube
Starting with a single DNA molecule, PCR can generate:
100 billion molecules of DNA in a few hours
Which of the following are potential applications of PCR?
all of the above
A. amplify DNA from mummies
B. amplify DNA from frozen animals
C. detect viral genes in cells infected with HIV
D. amplify DNA from a crime scene for restriction fragment analysis
Telomeres are:
segments of repetitive DNA at the ends of chromosomes
Segments of DNA that are able to move from one site to another in the genome are called:
The specific pattern of bands that indicate a person's restriction fragment markers is called:
a DNA fingerprint
Why can't glycoproteins be mass-produced by bacteria or yeast cells?
these cells cannot correctly attach the sugar groups
Which of the following are the first pharmaceutical products made using recombinant DNA technology?
human insulin and human growth hormone
A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen can be used as a ___ to prevent an infectious disease.
An organism that contains a gene from another species is called:
The alteration of an individual's genes to treat a disorder is called:
gene therapy

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