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Psychology Chapter 11 Definitions


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An individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
A theory that attempts to describe and explain individual similarities and differences.
personality theory
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality, which emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality development.
A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind.
free association
In Freud's theory, a term used to describe thoughts, feelings, wishes and drives that are operating below the level of conscious behavior
Latin for the it' in Freud's theory the completely unconscious, irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives, ruled by the pleasure principle.
In Freud's theory, the self-preservation or life instince, reflected in the expression of basic biological urges that perpetuate the existence of the individual and the species.
In Freud's theory, the pschological and emotional energy associated with expressions of sexuality; the sex drive.
In Freud's theory, the death instince, reflected in aggressive, destructive, and self-distructive actions.
In Freud's theory, the motive to obtain peasure and avoid tension or discomfort; the most fundamental human motive and the guiding principle of the id
pleasure principle
Latin for I; in Freud's theory, the partly conscious rational component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world.
In Freud's theory, the awareness of environmental demands and the capacity to accommodate them by postponing gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist.
reality principle
In Freud's theory, the partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules.
In psychoanalytic theory, largely unconscious distortions of thoughts or perceptions that act to reduce anxiety
ego defense mechanisms
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego defense mechanism that involves unconsciously shifting the target of an emotional urge to a substitute target that is less threatening or dangerous.
In psychoanalytic theory, an ego defense mechanism that invlves redirecting sexual urges toward productive, socially acceptable, nonsexual activites; a form of displacement
In Freud's theory, age-related developmntal periods in which the child's sexual urges are expressed through different areas of the body and the activities associated with those areas
psychosexual stages
In Freud's theory, a child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward the same-sex parent
Oedipus complex
In psychoanalytic theory, an ego defense mechanism that involves reducing anxiety by modeling the behavior and characteristics of another person
In Jung's theory, the hypothesized part of the unconscious mind that is inherited from previous generations and that contains universally shared ancestral experiences and ideas.
collective unconscious
In Jung's theory, the inherited mental images of universal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations that are the main components of the collective unconscious
The theoretical viewpoint on personality that generally emphasizes that inherent goodness of people , human poential, self-actualiztion, the self-concept, and helthy personality development
humanistic psychology
In Rogers's theory, the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism
actualizing tendency
The set of perceptions and beliefs that you hold about yourself.
In Rogers's theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others; conditional love or acceptance
conditional positive regard
In Rogers's theory, the sense that you will be valud and loved even if you don't conform to the standards and expectations of others, unconditional love or acceptance.
unconditional positive regard
Bandura's theory of personality, which emhasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism.
social cognitive theory
A model proposed by psychologist Albert Bandura that explains human funcitoning and personality as cuased by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.
reciprocal determinism
The beliefs that peropls have about their ability to meet the demand of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence or self-doubt.

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