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Caribbean Final


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« serving the spirits » syncretic religion- combines different beliefs and practices. Combines Catholicism with many west and central African practices. Has anthropomorphic spirits « lwa ». It retains an ancestral memory of Africa. The lwa are organized into different nachon.
one of the nachons that lwa are organized into. These spirits are associated with agriculture and coolness- the relaxed spirits. There is also a musical ensemble dedicated to this group. Consists of « maman »- mother drum which is the lead and the drummer controls what pieces and rhythms to play, « segun » second drum plays rhythmic patterns which can vary slightly, and « boula » the ostinato high drum. The lowest drum is of the most importance, like in bata drumming in Cuba. They use drums made from goatskin and use pegs to tune.
another nachon/ ensemble that lwa are organized into. These are the pot spirits, the spicy spirits. They use two drums that are made of softer wood and the goat skin is adjustable by cords, not pegs. These drums are played with the hands.
street celebrations held in Haiti from the beginning of the Lenten season until Easter Sunday. Music is provided by bann rara. It is a nocturnal procession that maintains a balance between breaking (casse) and red (blocked up, hard). Ochan is a feild salute where one band can show another band their respect. There is a military organization to the bands : prezidan is in charge. The majo jon- baton twirler keeps away spirits. The kolonel has a whip and whistle and monitors the forward progression of the band. Rara is like a mobile Vodou ceremony- people pour rum on the ground and set it on fires and ritually bathe themselves with flames. Music originaed from konbit or rural labor music, music that accompanys a group harvest. Uses : tanbou- single headed drum, vaksin- single note bamboo trumpet that plays a hocket pattern, graj- scraper.
konpa dirèk
direct rhythm, genre pushed by Band leader : Nemours Jean-Baptiste, it drew a lot from Dominican merengue, used merengue beats but had lyrics that were deeply Haitian.
french spelling of merengue. Haitian mereng came from Dominican merengue. Mereng was popular piano music, mereng chanté- singing in Haitian meringue. Uses the quintolet or cinquillo in spanish.
female vodou priest
male vodou priest
maternal Ezili, the slave that talked back, tongue pulled out. Associated with Catholisisms virgen Mary.
lwa of snakes associated with Saint Patrick
Misik rasin
rasin= racines= roots, roots music. A music genre that emerged after the fall of the Duvallier regime in 1986, that uses Vodou music. Consciously evoked the music of the Vodou ceremony. Both rada(pegs, cowskin) and petwo (chords, goatskin) incorporated by mizik rasin. Government was uneasy about vodou because it puts the power in the hands of the people. All mizik racine is sung in Haitian Creole, and uses provebs in the dialogue/pwen. The bands would hire vodou drummers to keep things authentic.
vodou ritual language that is derived from African languages and cannot be translated.
word for Africa in vodou religious practices (Guinea)
a religious symbol of vodou lwa that serves as their representation during ceremonies. To begin a ceremony the veve is drawn in cornmeal to let the lwa know that a ceremony is taking place and that they are invited to attend.
a single-headed animal skin covered drum used in Haiti
Haitian creole « troubadour ». A Haitian singer of topical or popular songs, usually accompanied by guitar, maracas (chachas), malimba, and tanbou drum.
Haitian popular dance music of the 1960s and 1970s, especially as played by electric guitar based combos perhaps with trumpets. The rock music explosion in Haiti resulted in yeye insembles (upper class kids playing Beatles style) when yeye combined with konpa the result was mini (for mini skirts) and djaz (jazz). One group is Tabou Combo.
misik angaje
engaged music. In Haiti, music that engages or criticizes the Duvalier government.
an ethnic group that orginially inhabited Puerto Rico. They speak Arawak and vestiges of their culture are present in Puerto Rican music.
gourd with notches but in it, used as a scraping tool to get scratching sound (Puerto Rico)
The indigenous name of Puerto Rico. Boricoas- used to refer to Puerto Ricans that identify with indigenous people.
(farmers) people who worked on haciendas and who lived in a sharecropper economy. Haciendas were plantations in Puerto Rico- reffered to small scale agriculture, owned by European people.
Puerto rican instrument. It has four courses of strings, 8 strings, 4 pairs.
six couple dance. Sub genre of Puerto Rican jibaro music
a Spanish derived text form of ten octosyllabic lines, usually with the espinela rhyme scheme abbaaccddc.
one of the two most well known African-derived Puerto Rican musics; secular dance music in Puerto Rico. Practiced in the coastal areas of Puerto Rico where slaves lived on Sugar and Indigo farms. Can be a couple or single person dance, like many West African recreational dances features the skills of individual dancers. Uses requinto- single headed animal skin drum- lead played. Requintador is the person that plays the drum. Drummer will play things to tell the dancer what to do. Cua- hitting something hard with sticks- ostinato. Good dancers can tell the drummer what to play- called conversacion.
other of the two most well known African-derived Puerto Rican music. “el periodico cantado”- subjects of early plena are taken from the news and turned into songs. Ex.- local news, events in neighborhood, a bad dancer, a politician. Related to bomba- sugarcane plantations of coast also jibaro music influenced. 1920s- first plena groups- guitars guiro, panderettas (tambourines w/ out jangles). Historically becomes associated with PR pride.
single-headed animal skin drum used in Bomba (PR)
person who plays the requinto (PR).
periodico cantado
“the sung newspaper” another name for plena
Manuel Jimenez, the first band leader to popularize plena as a dance format. Modernized plena in the 1930s, used pandero, simple melodies and topical texts but beefed up the instrumentation.
a Dominican scraper, typically made of a serrated metal cylinder, scratched with a few metal prongs attached to a handle.
(palm beach) merengue estilo yanki (merengue in the yankee style) music written during the time of the American occupation
Raphael Trujillo, general in Dominican republic, ruled for 31 years. He came from a poor background and resented the elite. He decided that the Dominican Republic needed a national music and he chose merengue. Specifically Cibao merengue.
the longest section of a merengue- the middle section. A phrase is repeated over and over. It uses call and response. This is where the most dancing is going on.
the short, march-like introduction to a merengue- not all merengues have it. It is when people can move to the dance floor.
the second section of a merengue piece. This is the “heart” of the piece- where the principle lyrics are presented.
(music of bitterness) originally songs consisted of love lyrics from a male point of view, unrequited love. Men depicted women as the focus of the lovers attention/ idolized in a sense. This changes after 1961. Uses guitar, maracas. Changes to hard edged songs after 1961, movement into the city changed the gender dynamic. Not recognized as a style until the 1990s with the crossover album “Bachata Rosa” in 1991 bu Jean Luis Guerra.
blends merengue & R&B and rap. Uses guira and tambora p. 35 ex. 11
Latin Rap
Emerged from Latin Americans living in New York and adopting African American popular music styles. Not as misogynistic and coarse as African-American rap. Humor, Spanish-English word play. Affirmation of latin identity.
a genre of Hispanic Caribbean (especially Puerto Rican) popular music. It is regarded as Spanish-language counterpart of dancehall, although it has its own distinctive style and rhythm. Infuses the music with latin beats (bomba) Dame mas gasolina!
“Mwen te travay noun New York Police Department” (With Brooklyn accent).
« the way of the Saints », Regla de Ocha, Lecumi- African derived religious practices in Cuba. Similar to other African derived religions (vodou). Monotheistic : Olorun, orishas merged with Roman-Catholic saints- but slightly different.
an afro-cuban of Yoruba descent
voluntary societies made up of slaves. They were able to have a group identity and engage in competitive msuic making. They also organized themselves politically. Slave owners though it was a way to keep them busy. Enslaved people would raise money and buy peoples freedom. 1835- cablidos power is becoming limited.
the Santeria orisha of war and iron. Associated with Catholic saint Peter.
the Santeria orisha associated with lightning. In Cuban carnival shango characters dress in red, black, white, and carry a hatchet. Associated with Catholic saint Barbara
the wife of shango.
the ensemble that plays during Cuban Carnival. Trumpets and congos.
recreational dance in Cuba. Emphasis on virtuosity, improvisation and personal expression.
one type of rumba. It is a couple dance, inacts a stylized sexual flirtation, the male tries to get the woman and she covers herself. Vacunao- pelvic thrust.
another couple dance rumba, but slower than the guanguanco, accompanied with drums and wooden boxes.
virtuosic dance of rumba, men are only allowed to dance it and it is done alone.
the first of three parts of a rumba- it is the introduction and outlines the pitches to be sung, very short in length.
the song part of the rumba. It is longer than the Diana.
the third part of the rumba. It is the call & response section and takes up most of the song, it is where all of the dancing takes place.
means key in Spanish. Also the two stick instruments, everyone can participate, don’t need to be a virtuoso. Clave plays the key rhythm in both son and rumba.
referrs to an instrumentation over a style. Rumba influenced rhythm- not as dense. Claves play the clave rhythm, tres plays, trumpets were eventually added.
a Cuban salon music genre popular from the late nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. It emerged from the contradance and the habanera, uses cinquillo pattern.
a Cuban dance ensemble consisting of flute, two violins, piano, bass, and percussion (originally called charanga francesa).
originally from Argentina, associated with bar life « the wrong side of the tracks » music. In the 1920s it became popular in the world, especially Paris. It became middle class friendly as it moved to different locations and eventually New York.
Mario Bauza
trumpter player and arranger in Frank Grillo (Machito)’s Latin Big Band in the 1930s-70s. He linked up with African American musicians in New York (Like Dizzy Gillespie).
Tito Puente
advocate of mambo. Famous for leading band and playing timbales. « King of Mambo ».
emerged out of danzon, a section of the danzon expanded/.
1960s new genre. A combonation of Latin sound aesthetic and elements of rock. No clave.
sonejos- lead vocalist in salsa’s semi-improvised calls in the montuno section of a salsa piece.
nueva cancion
(new song) loosely related to North American protest music.
nueva trova
Cuban variety of Latin American nueva cancion (new song), emerged inthe 1970s, inspired by Bob Dylan and Joan Baez. Mistrusted by the state bureaucracy at first. Nueva trova sounds like soft-rock ballads, sophisticated lyrics, controversial. Not vulgar.
haitian lwa of death and sexuality. A trickster known for outrageous behavior.

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