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Anatomy and Physiology Test 3


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transport oxygen rich blood from the heart to the tissues
smaller vessels
inervates the smooth muscle layer control the calibre of the vessels thus the blood pressure
sympathetic nervous system
when the vessel constricts
the blood pressure goes up
the outer connective tissue layer
tunica externa
middle smooth muscle layer
tunica media
inervates the tunica media
sympathetic nervous system
inner layer of simple squamous epithelium
tunica intima
gives rise to the brachiocephalic arter, the left common carotid and the left subclavian
arch of the aorta
supply the upper extremeties
a short artery, becomes the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian
brachiocephalic artery
branch at the level of the upper part of the thyroid cartilage
common carotid artery
an important pulse artery
common carotid artery
when common carotid artery is damaged it causes a
transient ischemic attack
supplies the brain
internal carotid artery
supplies the face, head and neck
external carotid artery
become the basilar artery , which helps supply the brain
vertebral arteries
becomes the axillary artery at the clavicle
subclavian artery
axillary artery becomes the
brachial artery
the main blood pressure artery
brachial artery
brachial artery divides into
the ulnar and radial artery
lies deep and medial
ulnar artery
more superficial and lateral
radial artery
common pulse taking artery at the wrist
radial artery
sends branches to the intercostal muscles
thoracic aorta
when the thoracic aorta penetrates the diaphragm it becomes the
abdominal aorta
suplies the stomach spllen and liver
celiac trunk
suplies the small intestine and half of the colon
superior mesenteric artery
supply kidneys
renal arteries
supply the gonads
testicular or ovarian arteries
supplies the remaining half of the transverse and all of the descending and sigmoid colon
inferior mesenteric artery
divides left and right into the common iliac arteries
abdominal aorta
supply the pelvic organs
internal iliac artery
external iliac artery becomes
the femoral artery
femoral artery emerges behind the knee becoming the
popliteal artery
popliteal artery divides to become the
anterior and posterior tibial artery
anterior tibial artery become the
dorsalis pedis artery
thinner and less circular than arteries
emerge from capillaries and become veins
transport oxygen poor blood from teh tissues back to the heart
75% of the blood of the body is in the
venous system
prevent the backflow of blood
often visible under the skin
superficial veins
main central veins
subclavian, internal jugular, and femoral
drain blood from the face, head and neck and are visible in the neck
right and left jugular vein
if the heart fails and blood backs up in the venous system this is
jugular venous distention
external jugular veins empty into the
sublcavian vein
venous drainage from teh brain is by way of the
internal jugular veins
runs along the lateral aspect of forearm and arm going deep at the deltoid muscle
cephalic vein
controls BP
kidneys function
filter waste products from the blood
maintain fluid, acid base, and electrolyte balance
lie retroperitoneally against the back body wall, imbedded in fat, at about the spinal level t-11 to L-3
which kidney is lower
right kidney
why is one kidney lower
because of the liver
what contains the renal artery, vein and pelvis
what forms the renal pelvis
filters blood substances into a small tubule
glomerulus and tubule makes up the
two renal arteries arise from the
abdominal aorta
two renal veins empty into the
inferior vena cava
system important in causing vasoconstriction and release of renin
highpressure about 45 mm Hg
hydrostatic pressure
two opposing pressures
oncontic pressure and the tubule pressure
plasma protein pressure
oncontic pressure
measures the status of the glomeruli
glomular filtration rate (GFR)
this allows transportation of sumbstances if there is less on one side of the membrane
active transport
substances actively transported
sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, glucose, and amino acids
when the concentration of substances in the filtrate exceeds the transport rate it will appear in the urine...when the concentration of substances in the filtrate exceeds the transport rate it will appear in the urine...
renal threshold
glucose in the urine is from
diabetes mellitus
if NaCl is decreased in the bloodstream , ______, is secreted and more NaCl is absorbed
a group of cells at the junction of the afferent arteriole and glomerulus
juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)
converts angiotensin in the plama to angiotensin I causing vasoconstriction and raises the blood pressure and stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone
is secreted in response to low blood pressure but also during essential hypertension
a hormone formed in the kidney tubules that increases RBC production in the bone marrow. low oxygen stimulates it and high oxygen shuts it off
the kidney has three buffers:
the two ureters lie on this muscle
psoas muscle
a muscle receptacle for urine, lined with mucosa, lying in the suprapubic region of the abdomen
urinary bladder
bladder lies
voiding, urination
a narrow tube leading from the bladder to the outside
a simple, inexpensive and informative series of lab tests (color, appearance, and a microscopic examination of urine)
cloudy urine indicates
bacterial infection
urine sediment shows abnormal constituents, such as
bacteria, WBC and RBC
an important indicator of kidney disease
protein (proteinuria
commonly present in a bladder infection or stones
blood (hematuria)
usually indicates diabetes mellitus
seen in fasting because the body uses fat for energy
reflects kidney fnction.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
the breakdown of proteins causes the formation of
ammonia is converted to
if the excretion of urea is blocked, as in kidney disease....
urea accumulates in the bloodstream
the amount of urea in blood is calculated by measuring the amount of
nitrogen in the body
the moist important cause of a greatly elevated BUN is
kidney disease or failure
the amount of filtrte cleared from the glomeruli of both kidneys in one minute
glomular filtration rate (GFR)
commonly used substance that is neither secreted nor readsorbed
clearance is calculated as follows
concentration of urine times urine converted to ml/min divided by creatinine in plasma
average creatinine clearance is between
85 to 125 ml/min
an x-ray of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
an increase in urine production
most diuretics block the readsorption of
an important side effect of diuretics
loss of potassium
blocking sodium readsorption at teh proximal tubule results in
increased sodium at the distal tubule
potassium losing diuretics are
thiazides, and furosemides
blocks the reabsorption of sodium from the proximal tubule
blocks ADH secretion from he posterior pituitary
a common infection, mostly effecting females.
bladder infection (cystitis)
bladder infection usually shows these in the UA
white cells and often blood
a disease involving antigen-antibody reactions affecting the glomeruli
most consist of calcium salts and preicpitates in the renal calyces and pelvis
kidney stones (calculi)
sometimes used "stone crushing" an ultrasonic beam is focused on the stone and pulverizes it
an infection of the kidney
in pyelonephritis the UA shows
bacteria and white cells
main causes of chronic renal failure are
diabetes and hypertension
in cases of renal failure the follow are decreased
filtration rate
tubular absorption
erythropoietin secretion is decreased shows
the ability of the kidney to clear normal metabolic acids from the bloodstream is reduced
calcium readsorption from the tubule is decreased
the BUN creatinine and uric acid are increased
nitrogen retention
weakness and fatigue due to
sodium, potassium and calcium abnormalities
present because of the excretion of an increased solute load
polyuria and nocturia
because of injury to the JCGA and the release of renin
the accumulation of waste products in skin vessels
if the aorta is damaged the breathing muscles can still recieve blood by way of the
thoracic arteries
runs along the medial aspect of the forearm and arm and goes deep at the biceps muscle
basilic vein
between the basilic and cephalic veins
median cubital vein
the first main deep vein is the
axillary vein
the axillary vein becomes the
subclavian vein
the subclavian vein joins the
internal jugular vein
the internal jugular vein joins the
brachiocephalic vein
two brachiocephalic veins join the
superior vena cava
the superior vena cava empties in the
right atrium
lies on the posterior wall, drains the intercostal veins
azygous system
the azygous veins empty into the
superior vena cava
goes from the gonads
right and left testicular or ovarian veins
drain the pelvic structures
internal iliac veins
continuation of the femoral veins
external iliac veins
superficial veins of the leg begin as the
dorsal venous arch on the top of the foot
ascends medially from the foot up the leg to the thigh and drains into the femoral vein
greater saphenous vein
may become chronically dilated in people with varicose veins
greater saphenous vein
commonly used in heart bypass surgery
greater saphenous vein
blood fow fastest in the
blood flow slowest in the
anterial tibial vein and posterior tibial vein drain into the
popliteal vein
major vein of the leg
femoral vein
average blood volume is _____ liters
five to six
heart rate over 100 is
heart rate less than 60 is
heart rate at birth is about
regulated by the sympathetic nerves to the arterioles, normally, arterioles are in a state of partial constriction
blood pressure
the sympathetic nervous system is in a state of continuous stimulation in
blood pressure is measured with a
blood pressure in the arterioles
about 65 mm Hg
blood pressure in the capillaries
about 30 mm Hg
blood pressure in veins
0 or negative pressure
the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
pulse pressure
normal blood pressure range
a fall in systolic an diastolic pressures
hypotension caused by
heart failure, shock, dehydration
recorded in the following way: the patient lies for 3 minutes and BP and HR are taken, then stands for 1 min and they are retaken
orthostatic vitals
when the heart rate increases by 30 beats per minute or the person becomes fain while standing is a postive test for
orthostatic vitals
factors effecting venous return (5)
respiratory pump
muscular pump
cardiac pump
regulates the three vital signs: the heart rate and blood pressure and respiration
reticular formation in the medulla
what nerve regulates the three vital signs
vagus nerve
slows the HR by stimulating the vagus nerve
carotid massage
hardening of the arteries
deposition of fatty plaques in medium and large arteries
increased arteriosclerosis is seen in countries with high fat diets
lipid theory
the weak wall may also balloon out
the number one disorder of the cardiovascular system is
an abnormal dilation of a part of a vessel
a mass traveling in the bloodstream
an area of dead tissue caused by loss of blood supply
temporary deficiency of blood supply to a tissue
blockage of a vessel
an intravascular clot
the most common cardiac arrest is a
myocardial infarction
the heart stops completely
the heart fibrillates
ventricular fibrillation
there may be an EKG tracing without a
CPR steps
est. unresponsivness
call EMS
open airway using chin lift
look, listen and feel for breathing
begin CPR
caused by atheriosclerosis and superimposed plaque and thrombus formation in one or more coronary arteries
coronary artery disease
medical management of CAD consists of
maneuver a balloon tipped catheter into a coronary artery which inflates and dilates the narrowed area
coronary angioplasty
chest pain usually lasting 5 to 15 minutes brought on by exertion or stress relieved by sublingual nitro
stable angina pectoris
a condition between stable angina and myocardial infarction
unstable angina pectoris
non drug therapy of hypertension
salt restriction, weight reduction, decreased alcohol, no smoking, and aerobic exercise
inadequate blood supply to the vital organs
requires the rapid infusion of IV Ringer's lactate or normal saline
hypovolemic shock
dopamine may be added to sustain blood pressure in
cardiogenic shock
shock due to an overwelming infection caused by various microorganisms, the more common being gram negative bacteria
septic shock
seen in otherwise young healthy people, the rate ranges from 150 to 250 per minute
paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)
a common arhythmia in the elderly and is treated if the person is syptomatic of the ventricular rate is high
atrial fibrillation
common in older people, are also seen in smokers and coffee drinkers
premature ventricular contractions (PVC)
a life threatenning arythmia often evolves into ventricular fibrillation
venticular tachycardia
the main artery in the testis is the
testicular artery from the abdominal aorta
a network of veins in the scrotum is called
the pampiniform plexis
the testis is covered by a perotoneal-like membrane, the
tunica vaginalis
the continuation of the tubule system, likes posterior to the testis and is called the
this raises the testis
cremaster msucle
this passes up the inguinal canal lateral and posterior to the bladder and enters the prostate gland
vas deferens
the glands that join the vas deferens as it enters the prostate
seminal vesicles
at the root of the penis these glands enter the urethra
bulbourethral glands
composed of three meshworks of erectile tissue
two large erectile tissues
corpora cavernosa
one smaller erectile tissue
corpora spongiosum
each testis is composed of about ___ small tubules
what are the tubules called in the penis
seminiferous tubules
the cells that secrete male hormones
interstitial cells
male hormones are known collectively as
the main androgen
fromed alon gthe walls of the seminiferous tubules
sperm (spermatozoa)
simtulates spermatogenesis
FSH- Follicle stimulating hormone
stiulates the secretion of testosterone from interstitial cells
LH- luteinizing hormone
stimulates the production of FSH and LH
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
males under the age of ten produce little testosterone because
no releaseing hormone is secreted by the hypothalamus
increases the synthesis of protein in cells
production of sperm
contain the diploid number of chromosomes (46)
spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes
contains haploid number of chromosomes (23)
secondayr spermatocytes

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