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(p)Physiological Psychology


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3 Brain Divisions.
What two sections is the Hindbrain divided into?
1) Metencephalon (reticular formation, pons, cerebellum)
2) Myelencephalon (medulla)
Divisions of Midbrain?
Midbrain's 2 main division:
1)tectum(inferior & superior colliculi)
2)tegmentum (rostral part of reticular formation, periaqueductal grey, cerebral aqueduct, red nucleus, substantia nigra).
What part of the cell manufactures proteins?

The cell body
Central Sulcus
Divides frontal and parietal lobes.
Reticular Formation
-located in the tegmentum of of the midbrain. Located in the central region of the brain stem from the medulla to the diencephalon. A large network of neural tissue that recieves sensory info from various pathways & projects axons to the cerebral cortex, thalamus & spinal cord.
Involved in sleep & arousal, attention, muscle tone, movement & various vital reflexes.
Main divisions of the Hindbrain?
Hindbrain's 2 main divisions:
a) Metencephalon 1)Reticular Formation
b) Myelencephalon 1)Medulla
Describe the charge of a neuron.
Inside the neuron, the ions are mostly negatively charged.
Outside the neuron, the ions are mostly positively charged.
In this state (with mostly negative charge inside and positive charge on the outside) the neuron is said to be Polarized.

Lateral Fissure
Divides temporal lobe from overlying frontal and parietal lobes.
What happens when the primary visual cortex is damaged?
May cause blindsight-an inability to recognise objects conciously that may be detected unconciously.
Autosomes - all chromosomes except sex chromosomes, which regulate such things as eye color, hair, body size, etc.
Describe the theory of dualism.
Dualism is the theory that the mind and body (including the brain) are separate entities made of different subtances.
What is the Parietal Lobe control?
The Parietal Lobe is involved in perception. Contains the somatosensory cortex.
Primary Visual Cortex.
-Located in the Occipital Lobe.
-L. visual field from both eyes goes to the R. visual cortex. Info from the R.visual field from both eyes goes to the L. visual cortex.
The visual cortex is surrounded by the visual association areas.
Parasympathetic nervous system?
The parasympathetic nervous system - slows body down, conserves bodily resources: slows heart rate, reduces blood pressure, etc.
What is the all-or-none law?
A neural impulse will either occur or not. There is no in between. Once the threshold is reached, there is no going back, the neural impulse will begin and will go through the complete cycle.

Wernicke's aphasia?
Wernicke's aphasia is caused by damage to Wernicke's area in the brain.
Individual can speek but nolonger understands how to comprehend, or produce meaningful speech.
The person's speech will be FLUENT but NONSENSICAL.
Primary auditory cortex
Primary auditory cortex-performs the basic analysis of sound.
L. auditory cortex recieves input from the R. ear and vice versa.
Sympathetic nervous system?
The sympathetic nervous system - prepares the body for emergencies. Responsible for the fight-or-flight response: brings blood from internals to externals (muscles), slows down digestion, signals adrenal glands to release hormones, etc.
It is in sympathy with the body's emotions and mobilizes the body to fight or flight.
Which brain structure was cut in the "split-brain" experiments?
The corpus callosum
Meninges are tough connective tissues covering the brain and spinal cord.
Red Nucleus
Large nucleus in the midbrain that recieves inputs from the cerebellum & motor cortex & sends axons to the spinal cord via the rubrospinal tract to various subcortical motor nuclei.
Dominant genes?
Genes that are expressed when paired genes are mixed
What is the definition of a neuron?

A self-sufficient, specialized cell in the nervous system that receives, integrates, and carries information throughout the body.
What is the Right hemi's function?
R.Hemi-controls spatial perception and musical ability.
Auditory association areas
Make more detailed analysis of sound.

Chromosomes are thread-like strands of DNA molecules that form the DNA segments. Every cell in the human body has 46 chromosomes; 23 from mom, 23 from dad.
Each parent's chromosomes can be scrambled 8 million ways to give approx. 70 trillion possible configurations. The more closely related we are the more genes we have in common, the more similar we are to one another.
Describe the theory of monism.
Monism is the theory that the mind and brain are the same thing and they are composed of the same physical subtance.
Describe cerebral hemispheres (hemis).
Constitutes the largest part of the brain.
Responsible for movement and higher functions.
Each hemi controls movements on the opposing side.
What is the function of the Cerebellum (located in the Hindbrain)?
Impt sensorimotor structure
The cerebellum controls muscle coordination, balance, & posture. It's size is related to the amount of muscular activity.
Damage causes an inability to precisely control one's movements & to adapt them to changing conditions.
Contains the two hemis & is covered with the cerebellar cortex.
Substantia Nigra
Darkly stained region which communicates with the neostraitum via the nigrastriatal bundle-part of motor system.
Describe the study of genetics.
Genetics is the study of heredity (characteristics transmitted by the genes a person is born with).
What is the Synapse?

The Synapse is the area where the axon terminal of one neuron meets the dendrite of another neuron. They do not connect, but there is a small gap called the SYNAPTIC CLEFT/GAP.
What is the function of the pituitary gland? (controled by the hypothalamus; Housed in forebrain)
The pituitary gland is "the master gland" of the endocrine or hormone system. It releases a variety of hormones that fan out around the body, stimulating actions in other endocrine glands.
Divisions of the Forebrain?
A)Telecephalon 1)cerebral cortex (sulci, gyri, fissures, corpous callosum, 4 lobes)
2)basal gaglia(caudate nucleus, putamen, globus, pallidus, amygdala)
3)Limbic System (anterior thalamic nuclei, hippocampus, limbic cortex, farnix, cingulate cortex, mamillary bodies, septum)
B)Diencephalon 1)Thalamus
3)Optic Chiasm
4)Pituitary Gland
Sex chromosomes?

Sex chromosomes - one pair of the 23 chromosomes from each parent which determines your gender.
What is the white, fatty covering made by glia cells to surround the axons of some neurons?
The myelin sheath
What does the Frontal Lobe control?
The Frontal Lobe involved in planning, execution and control of movements.
Houses primary motor cortex and Broca's Area.
Visual Association Areas
1 part interprets object motion-> damage causes akinetopsia-the inability to see moving objects.
1 part interprets color-> damage causes achromatopsia-an inability to see or remember color.
Homozygous genes?
The combination of two similar genes in a pair (bb, BB, etc)
Describe the permeability of a Neuron?
The the outer membrane of the neuron is selectively permeable, and selectively allows some ions to pass back and forth. The way it selects is easy - it has pores that are only so big. So, only very small ions can fit through. Any large ions simply can't pass through the small pores.

What does the Occipital Lobe control?
The Occipital Lobe is responsible for vision. It houses the primary visual cortex.
Periaqueductal Grey
Consists mainly of cell bodies (gray matter). Contains neural circuits that control sequences of movements that constitute species-typical behaviors, such as fighting and mating
What is the fight-or-flight response?
The fight-or-flight response - Walter Cannon (1932) - found that when confronted with dogs, cats responded by : 1. preparing to fight; 2 preparing to flee. People are the same.
Describe what dendrites are.
Dendrites are tree-like branches of a neuron that extend from the cell body. These parts often recieve incoming messages from other neurons and then transfer that message to the cell body.
What is the Temporal Lobe control?
The Temporal Lobe is responsible for hearing and language. The auditory cortex is located here.
Cerebral Aqueduct
Narrow tube interconnecting the 3rd & 4th ventricles of the brain.
What is a phenotype?
Phenotype - the expression of your genetic makeup (eye color, height, hair color, etc).
What is a Neural Impulse?
A Neural Impulse is the electrical and chemical transmission of information from one neuron to another.

A Neural impulse takes the same path all the time - it is a process of conducting information from a stimulus by the dendrite of one neuron and carrying it through the axon and on to the next neuron.

Hyperphagia is overeating with no satiation of hunger. Leads to obesity. Has been associated with damage to the ventromedial region in animals.
Describe an action potential.
The action potential is a brief spike of positive voltage sent from the soma down the axon to the synaptic terminal. At the terminal endings, vescicles containing neurotransmitters, release them into the synapse.
What is a genotype?
Genotype - all of the genes you are born with (the combination of these genes and environmental influences form a person's observable characteristics).

What is the axon hillock?
The axon hillock is the area where the axon connects to the soma.
Differentiate between the superior and inferior colliculus.
The superior colliculus controls visual reflexes.
The inferior colliculus controls auditory reflexes.
Both appear as bumps on the brainstem.
What percent of the brain do the neurons take up (by volume)?
Neurons are 50% of the volume.
Recessive genes?
Genes that are masked when paired genes are mixed.
What is the axon?
The axon is a thin, tail-like fiber that extends from the soma to the terminal buttons. This can range from as small as a red blood cell to 3 ft long.
What is the function of the hippocampus (part of the limbic system)?
Thought to be involved in memory by the encoding of new info.
Name the two most important ions for the electrical properties of an action potential.
Sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+)
Heterozygous genes?
Heterozygous genes - the combination of two dissimilar genes in a pair (Bb, etc)
Resting potential is when the neuron is Polarized. The polarized Neuron is in a stable, negatively charged, inactive state. The charge is approx. -70 millivolts, and it means that the neuron is ready to fire (receive and send information). O-(organic ions) inside cell K+(potassium ions) inside cell Na+ (sodium ions) outside the cell
Stereotaxic instruments?
Stereotaxic instruments are used to implant electrodes into animals brains in experiments.
What is the function of the thalamus? (Housed in forebrain)
The thalamus is a 2 lobes structure that constitutues the top of the brain stem.
Contains nuclei that project info to specific regions of the cerebral cortex and recieve info from it.
It is the sensory relay station of the brain, as it relays messages from higher parts of the brain to movement control centres in the brainstem.
What cells are the basic building blocks of the nervous system?

What is a gene?
Genetics (this is going to be covered very, very, briefly)

the study of heredity (characteristics transmitted by the genes a person is born with).

Gene - DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
What is the soma?
The soma is the neuron's cell body which contains the nucleus, cytoplasm, etc. Everything needed for survival. It collects and integrates these incoming signals to determine whether the neuron should initiate its own signal called an action potential.
What is the function of the
amygdala (part of the limbic system)?
The amygdala controls emotional reactions such as fear and anger.
Def'n the study of physiological psych.
A biological based study of the mind.
The basal ganglia is composed of what for components?
1) caudate nucleus
2) putamen
(1&2 are refered to together as the striatum)
3) globus pallidus
4) amygdala
What is the speed of an action potential?

An action potential can travel from 10120 meters/sec, or 2-270 miles/hour.
Describe the structure and basic function of the spinal cord.
The spinal Cord is composed of bundles of neurons that extend from the base of the skull to just below the waist, and act as an information link between the brain and the rest of the body.
What is the ratio of glia cells to neurons?
10 glia cells to 1 neuron
The 2nd section of the forebrain, the DIENCEPHALON houses which structures?
3)optic chiasm
4)pituitary gland
How does a neuron achieve action potential?
Eventually (while polarized), some stimulation occurs (ex.hand to close to a flame), and the information is brought into the body by a sensory receptor and brought to the dendrites of a neuron.
Action potential is when the stimulation (the heat) reaches a certain threshold and the neural membrane opens at one area and allows the positively charged ions to rush in and the negative ions to rush out. The charge inside the neuron then rises to approx.+40 mv. This only occurs for a brief moment, but it is enough to create a domino effect.
What is the "blooming and pruning process?"
Children go through the "blooming and pruning process" in which neural pathways are connected and then some are allowed to die out.
Which lobe is the largest lobe in the cerebral cortex?

The frontal lobe
Sensory Homunculus
Map of the Human Body
-the amount of cortex devoted to a particular body part depends on the sensitivity of that part.
Function of Sensory Neurons?

bring information from sensory receptors to the central nervous system. Brings information from the eyes, ears, etc., as well as from within the body like the stomach.
Basal Ganglia?
The Basal Ganglia controls deliberate,large muscle movements.
Parkinson's is caused by degeneration of certain neurons located in the midbrain that send axons to the basil ganglia.
Describe glia cells.
Glia cells help neurons by providing structural support and by regulating the extracellular environment.
Superior Colliculi
Located in the tectum section of the midbrain.
Part of the visual system. Primarily involved in visual reflexes and reactions to moving stimuli.
What is the function of Interneurons?

Neurons in the brain and spinal cord that serve as an intermediary between sensory and motor neurons. They carry info around the brain for processing.
What is the function of the
cingulate gyrus (part of the limbic system)?
The cingulate gyrus links the areas of the brain dealing with emotions and decisions.
The resting potential of an average neuron is how many volts?
-70 millivolts
List the four lobes the cerebral cortex is divided into.
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, and Temporal.
What is a threshold?
The threshold is a dividing line that determines if a stimulus is strong enough to warrant action. If the threshold is reached, an action potential will occur.
Firing threshold is -50mv
What structures are considered a part of the Limbic System?
1)anterior thalamic nuclei 2)hippocampus
3)limbic cortex 4)fornix
5)cingulate cortex 6) mamillary bodies
7) septum Amygdala?
Describe the absolute refractory period.
The absolute refractory period begins after the action potential occurs, there is a brief period during which the neuron is unable to have another action potential. Then the charge inside the neuron drops to about -90 mv (refractory period) before restoring itself to normal.
3 factors that act on K+ & Na+
1) Electrochemical potential molecules act to keep as far away from each other as possible
2) Ions with the same charge work to keep as far away as possible
3) Sodium-Potassium Pump-works to keep Na+ outside the cell and K+ inside.
What two section is the MIDBRAIN divided into?
1)Tectum controls vision and hearing.

2)Tegmentum-controls sleep, arousal and eye movements.
Neuron Communication
Although most communicate within the CNS, some do get signals from outside the central nervous system. There are three major types of neurons upon which information travels. In addition, the information travels from the Sensory Neurons to the Interneurons, and then finally to the Motor Neurons.
What is the function of the Base of the reticular formation (located in the Hindbrain)?
The Base of the reticular formation is considered the oldest part of the brain. It controls alertness, thirst, sleep, and involuntary muscles such as the heart.
Selectively filters incoming info.
What is the axon terminal?
The axon terminal is the area at the end of the neuron where it meets another neuron.
Inferior Colliculi
Located in the tectum section of the midbrain.
Part of the auditory system, relays auditory info to the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.
What are the pre & post synaptic neurons?

The pre & post synaptic neurons are the neurons that, 1) have the information to pass on to the next neuron, and 2) the next neuron waiting to receive the information.
What is myelin, and what are it's two primary functions?
Myelin is a fatty substance that covers the axon that serves 2 purposes: 1)The myelin forms a a sheath (covering) called the myelin sheath that helps the signal travel faster along the neuron, and 2)it also protects the axon from damage and signals from other neurons.
The myelin sheath is not indestructible, but can deteriorate - For example, multiple sclerosis - signals are impeded and don't get to and from the brain properly.
The primary motor cortex?
The precentral gyrus contains neurons that control the skeletal muscles.
Stimulation of the R. primary motor cortex moves part of the L.side of the body and vice versa.
What are the Nodes of Ranvier?
The myelin sheath is not an even cover, but there are areas that are covered and others that aren't. The areas w/o myelin are the nodes of Ranvier. The way this helps speed up transmission is that the electrical current/signal jumps from Node of Ranvier to Node of Ranvier instead of traveling down the entire axon.

What is the Left hemi's function?
L.Hemi-controls speech and motor control.
What is an ION?
Ions are positively (+) and negatively (-) charged particles.
Somatosensory association areas
Responsible for identifying the shape and movement of objects that touch the body surface.
Neural Impulses involve what two ions?
Sodium (Na+) and Potassium (K+).
Ventricles are chambers filled with cerebrospinal fluid that insulate the brain from shock.
Motor Neurons

carry the information from the CNS to the appropriate muscles to carry out behaviors.
Where is Broca's area located?
In the left frontal lobe
The Neuron is composed of a variety of important parts, including...?

The soma (cell body), nucleus, dendrites, axon, axon hillock, mylien, Nodes of Ranvier, and the axon terminal. All of these peices are necessary for the neuron to function properly.
What is the function of the hypothalamus? (Housed in forebrain)
The hypothalamus is located just below the thalamus. It is involved in the regulation of the autonomic NS, controls the pituitary glands and integration of species typical behaviors, motivations such as hunger & thirst.
Through its connection with the amygdala it helps regulate emotional states.
What are the two basic functions of neurons?
Neurons process information and send information quickly over long distances
What is the principle structure located within the MYELENCEPHALON region of the HINDBRAIN?
The Medulla
What is repolarization?

Repolarization is when the neuron tries to quickly restore it's charge by pumping out the positively charged ions and bringing back the negative ones. Can occur fast enough to allow up to 1,000 action potentials per second.
Describe the function of the HINDBRAIN.
Hindbrain - is attached to the spinal cord and is responsible for many automatic functions such as breathing and heartbeat, as well as some voluntary actions like walking and facial movements.
What are the 2 major divisions of the nervous system?
Central nervious sytem(CNS)-brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous Syste(PNS)-spinal nerves, cranial nerves, & peripheral ganglia.
What is the corpus collosum?
The CC is a large commisure (cross-hemi connection); consists of axons that connect the 2 cerebral hemis so that they can communicate.
Composed largely of tracts carrying signals between the rest of the brain and body.
Contains part of the reticular formation, including nuclei that control vital functions such as regulation of the cardiovascular system, respiration, & skeletal muscle tones. Also contain nuclei that relay somatosensory info from the spinal cord to the thalamus.
What two structures constitute the Central Nervous System (CNS)?
The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord.

Primary Somatosensory cortex.
Located just behind the central sulcus.
Recieves info about touch, pressure, vibration, and temperature.
Sensory receptors on the R.side of the body send info to L. somatosensory cortex, and vice versa.
Damage-may cause anosognosia-the inability to recognize parts of the body or their state.
Sham rage?
Sham rage is extreame rage provoked when the cerebral cortex is removed.
How NS is Organized?
->PNS->autonomic NS
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)?
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) - carries information from the sense organs to the CNS and then from the CNS to the muscles and glands.
Describe the function of the Forebrain.
The forebrain - is the largest and most complex region of the brain.
What are two characteristics of the cortex surface?
Describe the function of the MIDBRAIN.
The Midbrain - is the area of the brain that serves primarily as a relay station between the forebrain and hindbrain, but does control some bodily movements like the startle reflex.
Dysfunctions caused by damage to the cortical association areas...
1) Apraxia-inability to organize movement.
2) Agnosia-difficulty processing sensory info.
3) Aphasia-Language disorders (ex Broca's and Wernicke's)
4) Alexia-inability to read.
5) Agraphia-inability to write.
What is the function of the corticospinal tract? (Housed in forebrain)
The corticospinal tract are the connections between the brain and spine.
Differentiate between the tectum and the tegmentum?(Both of which are housed in the MIDBRAIN)
Tectum-dorsal surface of the midbrain(roof). Composed of inferior and superior colliculi.
Tegmentum ("COVERING")-lies beneath the tectum. Includes the rostral part of the reticular formation, red nucleus, substantia nigra, cerebral aquaduct & peri-aqueductal grey. Also contains the nuclei of several cranial nerves.
Describe the cerebral cortex.
The cerebral cortex (also called neocortex) is the outer half-inch of the cerebral hemis.
Referred to as "the seat of sensory and intellectual functions."
Split into 4 lobes: frontal occipital, parietal, and temporal.
Additional components:sulci, gyri, fissures and corpus callosum.
Somatic Nervous System (part of PNS)?
Somatic Nervous System - nerves that connect to and control the voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors (skin, muscles, & joints).
Interacts with the external environment.
The PNS can be further divided into what two parts?
1) Somatic Nervous System
2) Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System (part of PNS)?
Autonomic Nervous System - nerves that connect the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, & glands. Controls automatic functioning like heart rate, eye blinking, & digestion. Controls much of the physiological arousal you experience from emotions. It is this nervous system that is involved in the famous fight-or-flight response.
1. sympathetic nervous system
2. parasympathetic nervous system.
What is the function of the Pons (located in the Hindbrain)?
Large bulge in the brain stem
Impt for sleep & arousal
Contains in its core a portion of the reticular formation.
The pons connect parts of the brain to the spine.
Broca's aphasia?
Broca's aphasia is caused by damage to Broca's area in the brain.
Individual can understand speech but has extreme difficulty with speach production (slow, laborious, omitting words).
Cortical Association areas?
Cortical Association areas are areas on the cortex that correspond to certain functions. The larger the area, the more sensitive and used the funtion is.
What is the lymbic system?
The lymbic system (housed in the telencephalon section of the forebrain) is a group of structures around the brain stem that involve emotional activity and pleasure centres.
The 4 F's: feeding, fleeing, fighting and sexual behaviors.

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