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Ch. 14

Terms

undefined, object
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crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
"parentese"
baby talk
contact comfort
in primates, the innate pleasure derived from the close physical contact; it is the basis of the infants first attachment
socialization
the process of learning to participate in a group
Ainsworth
tried to describe kinds of attachment, developed the theory of attachment based in the quality using the strange situation
developmental psychology
the branch of psychology that studies the social and mental development of children, a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
identity crisis
Eriksons term for the psychological state of emotional turmoil that arises when an adolescents sense of self becomes "unglued" so that a new, more mature sense of self can be acheived
sensorimotor stage
in piaget's theory, the stage durning which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
gerontology
the branch of medical science that deals with diseases and problems specific to old people
maturation
The sequential developments and changes in human behavior that occur with age.
private speech
children's self-directed speech that they use to guide their behavior and talk themselves through new tasks -- this gradually turns to inner speech
menarche
the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman
separation anxiety
feelings of distress that children, especially infants and toddlers, experience when they're separated, or expect to be separated, from individuals to whom they are emotionally attached.
Lev Vygotsky
emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development, Developed the idea of the "Zone of Proximal Development," mainly focused on cognitive development of children.
self-regulation
the ability to control and modify their impulses, thoughts, and feelings
intersex conditions
conditions, occuring in about one of every 2,000 births, in which chromosomal or hormonal anomalies cause a child to be born with ambiguous genitals, or genitals that conflict wiht the infant's chromosomes.
induction
reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children (1896-1980)
fetal alcohol syndrome
a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant
assimilation
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
gender typing
any association of objects, activities, or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes
formal operations stage
piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, in which logical reasoning processes are applied to abstract ideas as well as to concrete objects
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
accommodation
in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality
zygote
single cell/ fertlized egg
Erik Erikson
Created an eight-stage theory of social development, a crisis that needs resolution.
secondary sex characteristics
Characteristics - such as body hair, muscle development, broadened pelvis, or voice depth - controlled by the male and female hormones, but not essential to the reproductive process.
gender identity
your identity as it is experienced with regard to your individuality as male or female
emerging adulthood
period of psychosocial development roughly spanning ages 18 to 25 during which the person makes the transition from adolescent to adulthood
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
secure attachment
attachment pattern characterizing infants who are distressed by parental seperation but are easily comforted by the parent when they return
gender schema
a cognitive schema (mental network) of knowledge, beliefs, metaphors, and expectations about what it means to be male or female
avoidant attachment
Strange Situation test: no attachment to mother, not frightened when stranger present
menopause
the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
preoperational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
conservation
(physics) the maintenance of a certain quantities unchanged during chemical reactions or physical transformations
transgender
a term for describing a broad category of people who do not fit comftorbly into usual categories of male, or female.
egocentric thinking
seeing the world from only your own point of view; the inability to take another person's perspective
authoritarian versus authoriative parental styles
uses power to influence versus using reasoning to explain a decision
concrete operations stage
piaget's third stage of cognitive development, in which adultlike logic appears but is limited to concrete reality
motor reflexes
automatic behaviors that are necessary for survival.
mental operations
the ability to think in a variety of ways -- we are limited in terms of our ability to carry out certain operations (Ex: if you can think symbolically, you can take someone's perspective)
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
power assertion
a method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment and authority to correct the child's misbehavior.
fetus
stage in prenatal development that occurs four to eight weeks after fertilization (testosterone is secreted causing the fetus to develop into an anatomical male.)
germinal,embryonic, fetal stages
prenatal stages of human development
anxious ambivalent attachment
Strange situation test: The child protests when the caregiver leaves but refuses to be comfortated by them when they return.
Strange Situation
an observational measure of infant attachment that requires the infant to move through a series of introducions, separations, and reunions with the caregiver aand an adult stranger ina prescribed order
object permanence
The awareness that things continue to exist even when you cannot see or hear them
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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