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Concepts Science Semester 1 Finals


undefined, object
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mass x accelleration
substance that changes the rate of chemical reactions without being consumed (AKA inhibitor)
Names of Families
metals, nonmetals, metaloids, alkline earth metals, alkli metals, transition metals, halogens, noble gases
Ionic bonds
bond formed by the attraction between oppositely charged ions-when melted or dissolved, conducts electricy, melting points are very high-total charge of zero
Numerical Prefixes
1 mono 2 di 3 tri 4 tetra 5 penta 6 hexa 7 hepta 8 octa 9 nona 10 deca
Atomic Number
# of protons + # of electrons
Chemical prop.s determined
by position on peridic table
Gravity Rate to Earth
g=9/8 m/s squared
Law of Definate Proportions
A compound always contains the same elements in proportions, regardless of how the compound is made or how much of the compound is formed
Cation name
positive charges ex. calcium ion = Ca2+
Presicion vs. Accuracy
P: exactness A: how close you are to being correct
Covalent compounds name
numerical prefixes
Gases (K.T.)
spread in all direction
force with which a more dense fluid pushes a less dense substance upward
process of adding eletrons to or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms
Constant speed
object covers equal amounts of distance in an equal amount of time
Scientific Method
1. state problem 2. gather 3. form hypothesis 4. test a. control b. variable 5. organize data 6. conclusion
Terminal velocity
when two forces are equal and object stops accellerating, reaching its maximum velocity *see parachute picture
Chemical energy
the energy stored within atoms and molecules that can be released when a substance reacts
Newton's second Law of Motion
the unbalanced force acting on an object=mass x its accelleration
Polyatomic ions
ion made up of two or more atoms that are covalently bonded and that act like a single ion
Valence electrons influence
when outer most energy levels are full, each atom has an electronic structure similar to that of a noble gas
Bond length
average distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms
Bar graphs
comparing data for severval items or events
positive charge
*e science
expieriments to learn more
mass in an object
Scientific Theory
tested possible explanation of a natural event *explains why it changes
Molecular formula
a chemical formula that reports the actual numbers of atoms in one molecule of a compound
if atom looses electron, charge will be positive because it lost a negative
mass x velocity
Scientific Law
summary of an observed natural event *doesn't explain why it changes
elements that are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity-solid, liquids, or gas, dull, brittle
Solids (K.T.)
rigid structure, no container needed to maintain shape
Free Fall
the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on it *no air resistance, fall at same rate
Metallic bonds
bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them-conduct electricity when solid, flexible (malleable and ductile) atoms slide past w/o breaking
if atom gains electron, will have negative charge
mass per unit volume of a substance
SI unit that describes amount of a substance (6.022 x 10 to the 23/mol)
Scientific Model
represents object or event so it can be studied
the force between 2 objects in contact that opposes motion of either object *greater when rougher, less when smoother
Periodic Table arrangement
# of protons, increasing atomic number and in periods and groups
amount of space taken up by an object
Empirical formula
simplest chemical formula of a compound that tells the smallest whole number ratio of atoms in the compound
distance/time and direction
measured mass of an object
Molar mass
the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance
Unbalanced forces
forces not opposite and equal <--- ->
final velacity-orginal velocity/time
Line graphs
data that changes over time
state in which a chemical reastion and its reverse occur at the same time and at the same rate
Air resistance
result of interaction between the surface of a moving object and air molecules *Lrg. objects create more air resistance as does greater speed
Most and Least reactive elements
Most: Alkli Metals Least: Noble Gases
Valence electrons
an electron in the outermost energy level of an atom
Bond angle
the angle formed by two bonds to the same action
Attraction strength for states
Solid: strongest Liquid: second strongest Gas: weakest
fragments of molecules that have atleast one electron available for bonding
two or more liquids->dissolve in porportions
Synthesis reaction
a reaction of at least two substances that forms a new, more complex reaction A+B--->AB or 2Na+Cl (2) ---> 2NaCl
Endothermic reactions
reaction in which energy is transferred to the reactants usually as heat from the surroundings
two or more that do not dissolve
Periodic Law
properties of all elements tend to change in a regular pattern in order of increasing atomice number, or number of protons in their atoms
Homeogeneous mixture
mixing occurs between the individual units and is the same throughout
Balanced forces
forces that act on an object that combine to produce a net force of zero -><- *opposite and equal
Different number of neutrond than it normally does a new "verison" of the same element is formed. Different masses but same chemical properties
Chemical property
way substance reacts with others ro form new substances with different properties
Heterogeneous mixture
mixture-substances don't uniformly mix *flour and water
Double-Displacement reaction
reaction in which a gas, a solid precipitate, or a molecular compound is formed from the apparent exchange of ions between two comounds AX+By--->AY +BX
the problem
Significant figures
how many numbers are known for sure
determined by chemical properties
Net force
doesn't equal zero-total force used on an object
resistance of a fluid to flow
Newton's third Law of Motion
for every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force
Kinetic Theory
All matter is made of molecules and atoms that act like tiny particles. Always in motion-high temp., faster movement. Bigger, slower, smaller, faster.
nonmetals with metalic properties, able to conduct heat and electricity in certain conditions A.K.A. Seniconductors
Redox reaction
reaction occurs when electrons are transferred from one reactant to another
Average Speed
total distance/total time *doesn't give speed at any given point
Exothermic reactions
reaction that transfers energy from the reactants to the surroundings usually as heat
Chemical bonds
the attractive force that holds atoms or ions together
Avagadro's Constant
mol 6.022 x 10 to the 23rd
Atomic mass
# of protons + # of neutrons
Law of Conservation of Momentum
the total amount of momentum in a system is conserved
Liquids (K.T.)
take shape of container
Anion name
Mass vs. Weight
Wieght is force w/ which gravity pulls on a quantity of matter whereas mass is a measure of the quantity of matter in an object. Weight depends on gravity, so location can change weight, but not mass.
Physical property
characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured w/o changing composition of substance-change of state
Decompostion reaction
reaction in which one compound breaks into at least two products AB--->A+b or 2H(2)O--->2H(2)+)(2)
positive charge
Network structure
for ionic bonds, cube like *crystals/salt
Single-Displacement reaction
reaction in which atoms of one element take the place of atoms of another element in a compound XA+B--->BA+X or 3CuCl(2)+2Al--->2AlCl(3)+3Cu
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Every element is made of tiny, unique set particles called atoms that can not be subdivided. Atoms of the same element are exactly alike. Atoms of different elements can join to form molecules.
Negative Charge
study of forces and energy
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy can not be created or destroyed
To find # of neutrons
mass # - atomic #
Newton's first Law of Motion
inertia* or an object at rest, stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion at the same velocity unless acted upon by unbalanced forces
Bohr's model vs. Modern model
B: electrons move in set paths M: all over
elements that are good conductors of electricity and heat-shiny, malleable, ductile, hard
matter and its changes
Pie graphs
data with parts of a whole
Atoms (charge)
no over all charge
mass x free fall accelleration
Covalent bonds
bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons-solids, liquids, or gases with low melting point, not conductors because they're not charged
weight is measured in
Law of Conservation of Mass
mass can not be created of destroyed

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