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chapter 5 vocab

Terms

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energy coupling
energy released from exergonic reactions to drive essential endergonic reactions
energy
(physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work
active site
the part of an enzyme molecule where a substrate molecule attaches; typically, a pocket or groove on an enzymes body
heat
a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen: made up of glycosis, the krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain
endergonic reaction
an energy requiring chemical reaction which yields products with more potiential energy than the reactants the amount of energy ostored in the products equals the difference between potiential energy in the ractants and that in the products
active transport
the movement of a substance across a biological membrane across its concentration gradient aided by specific transport protiens and regruiring input of energy
cellular metabolism
chemical activities of a cell
facilitated diffusion
one of the proteins make it possible for a substance to move down its concentration gradient
ATP
adedosine triphosphate , the main energy source in cells
exergonic reaction
products contain less energy than the reactants (tend to occur spontaneously)
feedback inhibition
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
cofactors
a nonprotien substance such as copper or zinc or iron atom that help an enzyme catalyze a metabolic reaction
enzyme
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
competitive inhibitor
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzymes active site in place of the substrate a competive inhibitors structure mimics that of the enzymes substrate
entropy
the total disorder of an object
exocytosis
the movement of materials into the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicles of vacuoles
concentration gradient
an increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in the area. cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes
coenzyme
an organic molecule usually a vitamin thats acts as a cofactor helping an enzyme catalyze a metabolic reaction
chemical energy
energy stored in chemical bonds of molecules a form of potiential energy
endocytosis
the movement of materials into the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicles of vacuoles
fluid mosaic
membrane is often called this because of its characteristic mix of drifting pieces

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