This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Biology 103

Biology 103 Unit I

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
Anticodons
Three-base sequence in a transfer RNA molecule base that pairs with a complementary codon in mRNA
Proteins
protein polymers made of amino acid monomers; primary importance to the structure and function of cells
Alcohol, Amino, Phosphate
Functional groups
Bonding
force that combines atoms together
No two atoms
have the same number of protons
Scientific Method
Problem, Hypothesis, Methods and Materials, Results, Discussion
Pairing
Adenine with Thymine/Uracil and Guanine withe Cytosine
rRNA
ribosomal RNA; directs ribosome production
-ose
many carbs end in
Activity
depends on composition of elements
DNA Polymerase
enzyme that facillitates the process of aligning the nucleotides;matches DNA nucleotides with the exposed complementary nitrogenous bases
Al
Aluminum
All atoms of the same element
have the same number fo protons
Organic Molecules
made of carbon
Deoxyribose
sugar in DNA
Cellulose
indigestible cell wall of plants
Ca
Calcium
Mutation
mistakes or modifications
1 meter
10 decimeters, 100 centimeters, 1000 millimeter
Metabolism
nutrient uptake, nutrient processing;waste elimination
ribosome
small organelles in the cytoplasm; site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
Monomer
individual organic subunit
Cl
Chlorine
Polypeptide bonds
chain of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds
O
Oxygen
Salts
neither positive of negative; neutral; 7 on pH scale
Glycogen
extra starch stored by animals
Polymer
combined organic subunit
DNA molecule
align nucleotides by dehydration synthesis; this connects the nucleotide monomers
Amino Acids
Proteins
pH
numerical scale which indicates the acidity or basicity of a solution;
Acids
0-6 on pH scale; releases Hydrogen ions when disssolved in water
Inorganic Molecules
not made of carbon
How does an enzyme work
Attaches to a substrate, receptor molecule receives enzyme, geometry of enzyme and substrate must match, enzyme and substrate fit like a Lock and Key
Triphosphate
3 phosphates; ex. ATP-adenosine triphosphate; bond energy stored here
Element
basic building block of all things
Enzymes
proteins that regulate the rates of chemical reactions such as dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis
Isotope
atom with particular number of neutrons
3 differences of DNA and RNA
DNA is double stranded, RNA is single stranded; Sugars, DNA- deoxyribose, RNA- ribose; Different bases, Uracil replaces Thymine in RNA
K
Potassium
Denaturation
when a protein molecule changes shape due to change in temperature of pH
RNA Polymerase
enzyme that assembles RNA nucleotides by attaching the RNA bases to the complementary DNA bases
Complex Carbohydrates
starch, cellulose, glycogen
Proton
positive charge
Isomer
2 atoms that have the same empirical formulas but have different structural formulas; ex. alcohol, ether
Lipids
large organic molecules; made of C,H, and O with different empirical formula and ratio
Non-polar
equal sharing of electrons
Binocular Dissecting Microscope
allows you to view objects in 3-D at low magnification; used to study entire small organisms
Chitin
indigestible exoskeleton
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
Purines
Adenine and Guanine; are larger, have 2 rings with weak hydrogen bonds that connect to another base
Mass Number
number of protons and neutrons
Electron
negative charge
Chromatin
DNA with histones which is not in the process of cell reproduction
Do all atoms of the same element have the same number of neutrons?
no
Carbohydrates
C+H+O linked in predictable emprical formula (1:2:1)
Nucleic Acids
polymers of nucleotides with very specific functions in cells
Covalent Bond
formed when 2 atoms share electrons
Zn
Zinc
Unzipping
breaking the hydrogen bonds with Ligase
Amino Acids
Building blocks of proteins; 20 different ones
N
Nitrogen
tRNA
transfer RNA; brings an amino acid to ribosome and pairs with mRNA
Nucleotides
Nucleic Acids
Ionic Bond
formed when positive and negative ions are attracted; electrons are given and taken
Hydrogen Bond
attraction between two polarized molecules; very weak bond
C
Carbon
Carbon Skeleton
carbon chain of an organic molecule
Ribose
sugar in RNA
Ion
a single atom with a positive or negative charge
Glycerol and Fatty Acids
Lipids
Five Nitrogenous Bases
Adenine,Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil
Molecule
smallest part of a compound that still has the properties of that compound
Catalyst
chemical stimulus that does not become involved in the reaction
The number of protons
equals the number of electrons
Empirical Formula
tells how many of each atom
Chemical Symbol
representation of one atom of an element
Peptide Bond
covalent bonds between two amino acids
Cu
Copper
mRNA
messenger RNA; travels from the nucleus to the ribosome
Naming of Enzymes
Name of attached molecule; type of reaction; "ase" as suffix
Fats and Oils
energy providing organic molecules
Monophosphate
"one" phosphate; contained in DNA and RNA
Pyrimidines
Thymine/Uracil and Cytosine; are smaller, have a single ring with weak hydrogen bonds that connect to another base
Atom
smallest part of an element that acts like that element
Simple Sugars
Carbohydrates
Chromosome
is coiled chromatin and are in the process of cell reproduction
Mg
Magnesium
Generative
growth in size; increase in number
Atomic Mass Unit
mass of any proton
Response
reaction to external and internal changes; adaptation
Codon
triplet RNA sequences nucleotides are formed from the triplet DNA sequences, "the code"
I
Iodine
Histones
are in coiled strands of DNA
4 Classes of Organic Molecules
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
Transcription
process of reading the useful part of DNA to be translated into protein
Results of enzyme substrate complex
enzyme substrate separates; products released; enzymes unchanged and ready for use again
Factors that affect the speed of an enzyme
Temperature, pH, Concentration of enzymes, substrates and products
Neutron
neutral charge
Living Organisms
contain carbon molecules
Helix
shape of a DNA molecule
A proton is a proton
regardless of what element is belongs
H
Hydrogen
Valance
when an atom has an extra electron or the outer orbital has room for another electron and a bonding potential results
Fe
Iron
Polar
unequal sharing of electrons
Density
weight of certain volume of matter
Metric Prefixes
Giga, Mega, Kilo, deci, centi, milli, micro, nano
RNA
ribonucleic acid
Structural Formula
tells how the atoms are arranged
3 factors that determine Activity
attraction of electrons to protons, spinning action of electrons, electrons repel each other
Hydrolysis
splitting of large molecules into two or more components by the addition of water
Glycerol and Fatty Acids
building blocks of lipids
Enzyme Substrate Complex
Temporary and less stable; formed when enzyme and substrate "lock" together
Translation
communicates the coded message (RNA will instruct the cell how to make protein)
Gene
group of codes along a DNA strand with a specific meaning
Functional Groups
specific combination of bonded atoms that always reacts in the same way, regardless of the particular carbon skeleton
Formula
subscript number that tells how many atoms it requires to make a certain compound
Metric System
standard system of measurement in the sciences, including biology, chemistry, and physics.
Diphosphate
2 phosphates; ex. ADP-adenosine diphosphate
Organic, Carbon or Biochemistry
All study the chemisty of carbon
4 Functions of Nucleotides
replicate, mutate, store inforfmation, direct the synthesis of proteins
Simple sugars
glucose, fructose, sucrose
Eukaryotic
higher forms of life that have nuclear membranes and helical DNA
Atomic Number
number of protons
Na
Sodium
Prokaryotic
lower forms of life, have no nuclear membrane, circular DNA instead of helical
Compound
combination of atoms
Compound Light Microscope
uses two sets of lenses and light to view an object; Used to examine small or thinly sliced sections of objects under high magnification
Dehydration Synthesis
process that forms a macromolecule when water is removed from combination of smaller subunits
Control
coordination= proper sequence of metabolism
Matter
anything that has weight and takes up space
Bases
8-14 on pH scale; release Hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
DNA replication
process of duplicating genetic material
Nucleotides
base unit of Nucleic Acid; molecular complex of three types of molecules: phosphate, sugar, and a nitrogenous base
Buffer
chemical to help adjust and maintain a certain pH

Deck Info

136

permalink