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The Spectrum Chemistry - Bold Words


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Scientific notation (p. 16)
a convenient shorthand for expressing such numbers as powers of 10
metric system (p. 16)
this involves a series of standard units and uses factor-of-ten prefixes to express larger or smaller quantities.
periodic table of the elements (p. 8)
an orderly arrangement of the elements' symbols
Compounds (p. 9)
substances that contain two or more elements chemically combined in definite proportions by mass
Law of Definite Composition (p. 9)
A specific compound is comprised of a specific proportion (by mass) of elements
Law of Multiply Proportions (p. 9)
A particular set of elements can combine in defferent ratios to produce different compounds
molecule (p. 10)
the most fundamental uncharged unit of a compound
Accuracy (p. 12)
the extent to which a measurement gives a true value of the quantity being measured
Chemistry (p. 2)
the study of the composition and structure of matter and the changes that matter undergoes
three basic sciences (or pure sciences) (p. 3)
physics, chemistry, and biology
applied sciences (p. 3)
other sciences including geology, astronomy, medicine, environmiental science, etc.
Physics (p. 3)
the simplest (most fundamental) of all sciences; in physics you learn about the basic forces of nature, energy, and matter
elements (p. 8)
fundamental substances which cannot be broken down into simpler ones by ordinary physical or chemical means
International System of units (p. 17)
a select group of units that have been adopted by a scientific body to provide a standard for reporting in familiar units; also called SI units or mks (meter-kilogram-second) system
gram (g) (p. 17)
the unit of mass
mass (p. 17)
a measure of an amount of matter
weight (p. 17)
a measure of the influence of gravity on that matter
The units that are used most frequently for measuring length, volume, and temperature (p. 17)
meter (m), centimeter (cm), millimeter (mm), nanometer (nm); liter (L), millileter (mL), cubic centimeter (cm³); Kelvin (K), Celsius (°C), and sometimes Fahreheit (°F)
absolute zero (p. 17)
the coldest temperature theoretically attainable, and the point at which all particle motion stops
biochemicals (p. 4)
large molecules used by "living" things
diatomic elements (p. 11)
molecules that appeared in nature with 2 atoms of the same elements instead of 2 or more atoms of 2 or more different elements (which are normally compounds except in this case); there are only 7 of them and they are:
1) hydrogen
2) nitrogen
3) oxygen
4) fluorine
5) chlorine
6) bromine
7) iodine
unit factor method (p. 19)
a method used in problem solving;also sometimes called the factor-label method; it gets this name from the fact that the necessary mathematical transformations are accomplished through the use of "units"
Density (p. 24)
mass per unit volume; in other words: a ratio of the amount of a material (i.e., its mass) to the volume occupied by that amount of material.
(p. 28)a solid may be crystalline:
a solid's molecules may exist in regular, repeating, geometric crystalline solids
amorphous (p. 28)
when a solid does not exist in a regular geometric pattern it is called this.
gas (p. 28)
state of matter that has no definite volume or shape
liquid (p. 28)
state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape
matter (p. 28)
anything that has mass and occupies space.
solid matter (p. 28)
this state has a definite shape and a definaite volume
states of matter (p. 28)
what matter exists in; there are three which are: solid, liquid, and gas
mixture (p. 29)
when two or more substances are mixed, but not chemically combined
homogeneous (p. 29)
when a mixture is uniform in appearance and possesses the same physical and chemical properties throughout.
solution (p. 29)
when a mixture is homogeneous on the atomic or molecular scale.
metal alloys
hormogeneous mixtures of atoms of metallic elements
heterogeneous (p. 29)
when a mixture lacks homogeneity
phase (p. 29)
that portion of a mixture having separate physical/chemical properties from other portions.
interface (p. 29)
a physical boundary that separates one phase from another

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