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ASD Exam 3


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Who developed "Floor Time", and what is the dame of the work it was published in?
-Stanley Greenspan
-The Functional Emotional Assessment Scale for Infancy and Early Childhood (FEAS)
What are the 6 fundamental stages of FEAS?
-regulation and shares interest
-intentional 2-way communication
-sense of self/problem solver
-ability to use emotional ideas
-emotional thinking
What are the 3 types of experiences described in the Floor Time model?
Floor time: follow child's interests, gradually get activity to be more interactive

Semi-Structured Play: create highly motivating situations to engage in problem solving

Motor, Sensory, and Spacial Play: physical activities, crossing midline of body
Who does Floor Time work well for?
-general philosophy well for any child
-kids on milder end of spectrum respond better
-great for neurological developmental delays
What are some concerns of the Floor Time model?
-doesn't address specific skills in deficit
What are some Advantages of the Floor Time model?
-foundation in extensive neurologizal and developmental research
-consistend with etiology of ASD
-multi-faceted, various compotants of development
-integrative across disciplines and people
-individualized to specific child's needs/devel. level
-incorporates motivation, interest and emotion--not behavioral drill
Whare are some Disadvantages of the Floor Time model?
-cumbersome in research and developmental detail in methodology
-violates its own general prniciple by scripting intnsity level for treatment program
-loses focus and becomes behavioral in aspects of intervention
-lacks empirical research on actual treatment techniques
What is the Inclusion model?
-placing ASD child in mainstream classroom with classroom aids, provisions for more time or alternative test taking, providition additional visual or auditory aids, expecting same curriculum as other students
Who does Inclusion work well for?
-children with normal cognitive ability
What are some concerns of the Inclusion model?
-make sure students are placed without special support services
-should't be "gates"/prereqs to get into classes
-large class might be too much stim for some kids
-kids with poor behavior might disrupt other's learning
-might not allow kid to socialize properly
-should just give kids busy work in back of class
-MR kids need to learn other skills, less academic
What are some of the Advantages of the Inclusiom model?
-allows kids with disabilites to learn in least restrictive environment
-exposes asd kids to stimulating models for comm, socialization, and academics w/non disabled peers
-educates teachers/students w/o disabilities to the abilities of autism
What are some of the Disadvantages of the Inclusion model?
-may compromise child's education if modifications aren't made
-demands of regular classroom may frustrate/trigger behavior problems in asd kids
-class expectations may exceed child capabilities so there is MUCH 1on1 instruction and no interaction
Who created ABA, and what is DTT?
-Ivar Lovaas

-breaks skill into smaller part, teaches one sub-skill at a time until mastered, provides concentrated teaching, prompting as necessary, reinforcement proceedures
Describe the componants of the general philosophy of ABA/DTT
-intense home training for 30-40 hours per week
-training is one on one
-ABC model of antecedant, behavior, consequence used
Who does ABA word best for?
-children with more impaired cognition
-children with more severe ASD
What are some concerns regarding ABA?
-unreasonable time demand
-skills drilled aren't generalized
-may create learned helplessness if adult isn't stimulating child
-need to stretch attn span past 30 second trials
-normal neurological needs aren't factored in, don't facotr reason for behaviors
-doesn't reinforce social interaction
-doesn't teach "whole" ideas, just parts
-no real motivation for learning
What are some of the Advantages of ABA/DTT?
-provides routine for learning with clearly defined expectations
-breaks tasks into small steps for sequenced learning to build into more complex tasks
-provides concrete reinforcements that are meaningful to child
-teached impulse control and attn to task (short time)
What are some of the Disadvantages of ABA/DTT?
-artificial steps in learning can create splinter skills
-intensity can be unrealistic and intrusive
-strict compliance may allow negative reinforcements that can be traumatic/anxiety provoking
-no group learning skills
-treats autism like behavioral disorder, not neuro
Who are the people most associated with PECS development?
Anadew Bondy

Lori Frost
What are the primary elements of PECS?
Functional communication--
--between (at least) 2 people
--bi-directional (using and understanding)
--direct vs. social function
--initate vs. respond to prompts
--commnicatin modality
What are the phases of PECS?
-assess reinforcers
I-physical exchange
II-persistence and distance
III-discrimination training
IV-sentence structure
V-answering "what do you want?"
VI-answering comment questions
Who does PECS work best for?
-intended for those without functional communication system
-used with wide variety of syndromes
-all ages (from 18 mos)
-those with cog. impairments and behavior problems still do well
-apraxics also do well
What are some concerns regarding PECS?
-no inclusion of oral-motor skills which generally improve with younger kids
-younger kids respond better than older ones
-higher cog. can get frustrated with limitations
-can result in non-meaningful symbol manipulations
-shouldn't be routinely recomended if child doesn't need it
-no bridge from functional communication to verbal
What are some Advantages of PECS?
-establishes concept of communication as interaction
-teaches a methos for spontaneous initiation of comm.
-provides excellent augmentative alternative for picture comm. system
-behavioral aspect is incorporated into methodology
What are some Disadvantages of PECS?
-doesn't directly advocate verbalization or oral stim
-doesn't always accomplish bridge to everyday functional use
-behavioral aspects and limits may frustrate more cog. normal kids
Who introduces the concept of Sensory Integration, and what did she publish?
Jean Ayres

Sensory Integration and Praxis Test
What are the basic assumptions of the Sensory Integration theory?
-neural plasticity (CNS can be + changed by providing sensory input)
-developmental sequence (process of integration is sequential)
-nervous system hierarchy (subsystems of brain are hierachical)
-adaptive behavior (an adaptive response to environment reflects individual's capacity for sensory processing)
What characteristics are evaluated in the assessment for Sensory Integration?

(ie, what defines an adaptive response?)
-meaningful to indivitual, developmentally appropriate, specific to situation
-self-reinforcing if integrated appropriately
-results from multisensory inpus, not just one system
-nervous system actively involved in environment
-behavioral or emotional repsonses
Who does Sensory Integreation techniques work best for?
all ASD kids, to some extent.

SI is basic foundation of all OT
What are some concerns regarding Sensory Integration?
-not all OTs trained in it
-not all schools/facilities have OTs
-non-trained persons shouldn't apply SI stims
-lots of differences in terms, definitions, approaches, etc = confusing
What are some Advantages of Sensory Integration?
-provides explanation for aberrant behavioral responses
-allows parents/professionals to control and manipulate sensory stim to + influence behavior
-asd kids can achieve calmer state, get better attn/learn better
-consistant with neuro classification of ASD
What are some Disadvantages of Sensory Integration?
-requires OT w/SI experience
-requires regular consults btwn parents/OT/teachers etc
-not compatible with all approaches that elimiate behavior thru rewards/consequences
-equip. necssary can be costly/big
-no real empirical research
Who invented Social Stories?
Carol Gray
What are the 3 types of sentences used in Social Stories?
-descriptive sentences: define situation, "Sometimes a person says 'I changed my mind.'"
-perspective sentences: describe the internal state of a person, "This means the person had one idea, but now she has a new idea."
-directive sentences: worded in + way, state desired response to situation, "I will work on staying calm when a person changes her mind"
What is the desired ratio of sentences in Social Stories?
0-1 directive(s)
2-5 descriptive and perspectives
How are Social Stories introduced and used?
-explain to child how story will be used, and read once or twice
-review story once a day beofre target situation occurs
-monitor response when story is presented, adjust as needed
-gradually fade story if possible. adjust story as needed
Who do Social Stories work best for?
-kids of any age
-need to be developped for age/development level
-need IQ of at least "trainable"
What are some concerns of Social Stories?
-not good for kids with auditory processing issues
-not good for very young kids/at stage of sensorimotor development
-must be used consistantly to be effective
-must be presented at level child can comprehend
What are some Advantages of Social Stories?
-addresses social behavior aspect of autism
-offers flexibility to adapt for individual needs
-doesn't require extensive time or money
-very functional and applicable
-effective for a variety of ages and disability levels on spectrum
What are some of the Disadvantages of Social Stories?
-efficacty is based primarily on anecdotal reports, not empirical research
-requires certain leevl of cog. comprehension to benefit form story format
What does TEACCH stand for?

Where was it created?
Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children.

university of North Carolina
What are the 3 initatives of the TEACCH program?
-Training: professionals and parents attend training sessions for assessment, ed. services, vocational programs, parent training, etc.
-Research: leading research center, publishes extensive library of resources
-Service: range from diagnostic assessment to social skill training, curriculum development, vocational/occupational training, parental counseling (in NC)
How does TEACCH accompish a teaching environment that is sensitive to the "culture of autism?"
-physical structure: divide classrom into targeted areas, not just one open space
-Schedule: provide organized routine, give child info of what to expect
-Work System: system defines what work needs to be done, how much, what to do when finished, what to do next
-Visual Structure: visual organization limits distractions, visual clarity only provides materials necessary for task, visual instruction shows how task is to be done
Who does TEACCH work best for?
-preK to adult, educational and vocational programming
-system allows flexibility to meet individual needs
-works well even with MR
What are some concerns regarding TEACCH?
-misuse: become too rigidly stuctured and routine bound
-too heavily followed doesn't allow for much spontaneous speech
What are some Advantages of TEACCH?
-multi-dimensional treatment, adapts to indiv. needs across ages
-consistent with etiology of autism
-fosters independence thru visual models and structures
-flexible system for teaching and training goals/settings
What are some Disadvantages of TEACCH?
-can become too structured in implementation
-may increase anxiety if routine expectations aren't flexible
-not always conductive to natural spontaneous comm. development
What are teh two core domains of causal cognition, as described in the Theory of Mind concept?
Folk Psycology: understanding of how people work. comprehend intentional states

Folk Physics: understanding how things work. understanding principles governing math, mechanics, spacial concepts
What are the stages of developing Folk Psychology, as decribed in the Theory of Mind concept?
-jt attn (9-14mos)
-pretend play (14-18mos)
-talk of the mind (24mos)
-seeing=knowing (36 mos)
-deception (48 mos)
What must a child develop in order to learn "mind reading" in the Theory of Mind?
-social behavior--reding intentions that trigger/result in observed behaviors
-communication--use language to search out meaning/intentions of speakers
-imagination--speculating beyond actual observation
Who can Theory of Mind best be applied to?
-aspergers persons, normal IQ
What are some Advantages of the Theory of Mind concept?
-explains lack of social cognizance in autism
-addresses incongruity of exceptional mechanical skills with minimal awarenss of intentions/reasons behind behavior
-identifies important skills to increase functional mind-reading abilities
What are some Disadvantages of the Theory of Mind concept?
-abstract theory with minimal practical application at an intervention level
-lacks emirical research to substantiate theory
-only addresses social aspect of autism
What benefits and drawbacks have Vitamins shown for kids with ASD?
-good for kids with restricted diets
-parents have reported better behavior with Vit C, DMG, b6, zinc
-if child has balanced diet, little effect
-low side effects
-artificial vitamins not as great
How do Food Allergies affect kids with ASD?
-foods, molds, pollens, allergans can may affect nervous system
-gluten or casein-free diets have helped some
What medications are commonly used to treat various aspects of ASD?
-selective serotonin reuptake unhibitors
What are some concerns with treating ASD with medications?
-meds introduce artificial substance to sensitive neuro system
-should attempt behavrioal modification first--behaviors might be significant
-under age of 3 (and 7) esp. sensitve, still developing
-avoid multiple meds
What does DIR stand for, and who does it relate to/what program?
Developmental Individual Relationalship
-realtes to Stanley Greenspan, FEAS, and Floor Time
What are some of the principles of FEAS?
1. have to have emotional basis to foster development of cognitive skills
2. professionals need to better understand individual differences of child's neuro system
3. look at child as a whole
What is the time frame/ratio in the Floor Time model?
20 minutes of each: floor time, semistructured play, and motor/sensory/spacial play

20 minute rest period

20 minutes of each again
What does RDI stand for, and what does it support the development of primarily?
Relationship Development Intervention

-develops "dynamic intelligence"
What are the 6 aspects to relationship intelligence and described in the RDI model?
1. Emotional referencing
2. social coordination
3. declarative lang.
4. flexible thinking
5. relational information processing
6. foresight and hindsight
What are 4 of the 8 principles of RDI?
5. systematic development of motivation
6. modifying the comm. environ. to increase spontaneous use of declaratives.
7. lifestyle mods to increase productive uncertainty (ie, not get used to useless routine)
8. progressive generalization thru gradual programmed steps
What does SCERTS stand for, and who are the persons most associated with it?
Social Communication Edmotional Regulation Transactional Support

Amy Wetherby and Barry Prizant
What are the goals that SCERTS helps with concerning Social Communication?
-help child become confident, competent, and active participant in events
-increase capacity to share attn, affect, intentions, and experiences
What 3 kinds of partners does SCERTS recomend, and for what situations?
social: presymbolic stage

language: emerging language skills

conversational: sentence and discourse stage
What are the goals that SCERTS helps with regarding Emotional Regulation?
-enhance a child's ability to regulate emotional arousal (help adapt to environ. changes)
-supports emotional well-being and availability for learning and social engangement
-self regulation
-mutual regulation
-recovery from disregulation
What are the kinds of supports described in the Transactional Support aspect of SCERTS?
-interpersonal support: how adults facilitate attending/comm,/engaging, how peers support soc./comm success
-learning support: visuals, curriculum mods, etc
-family support: support TO family to help child's development (home mods, vis. schedules, etc)
-support among professionals: enhance abilities to support child
What does SCERTS say it is based on?
-person centered
-developmentally grounded
-family centered
What aspects of ASD does SCERTS address in its program?
-social communication, functional use of language
-emotional regulation
-problematic behavior
-environment mods
-promote independence
-peer play/relations
What are the 4 base elements of the Pyramid Approach to education?
-functional objectives: teach skills child can use to function better
-powerful reinforcement system: strong motivation for learning tasks
-comm. and soc. skills: bi-directional communication
-prevending/reducins CIBs: examine form/funcntion of them, teach FEABs
What does CIB and FEAB stand for?

How are they related?
CIB: Contextually Inappropriate Behavior

FEAB: Functionally Equivalent Alternative Behavior

FEABs replace CIBs in the Pyramid model system
What do the Top Elements of the Pyramid system focus on?
-HOW to teach specific lessons
-designing effective lessons
-specific teaching strategies
-minimizing and correcting errors
-collecting and analyzing data
Who formed the Son-Rise program, and where is it based out of?
Barry and Samahria Kaufman

Autism Treatment Center of America
What does the Son-Rise program promote, and what are its claims?
-joining kids in repetitive/ritualistic behaviors to facilitate eye-contect and social development

-respect and deep caring are most important factors impacting motivation to learn; palces parents as most important teachers/ therapists/ program directors
What two theories are is PECS formed out of?
pyramid approach to education

ABA (w/o DTTs)
When was TEACCH established, and by whom?
early 1970s

Eric Schopler
What are the 4 types of consequences described in ABA?
R+ Positive reinforcement, leading to increase in behavior by presenting pleasant things

R- nevative reinforcement, leaing to increased behavior by removing unpleasant things

Punishment- leads to decrease in behavior

extinction- leads to decrease in freq of behavior (ignore and redirect)
Which models have some focus in the Communication aspect of ASD?
Pyramid Approach
Which models have some focus in the Behavior aspect of ASD?
Sensory Integration
Social Stories
Pyramid Approach
Which models have some focus in the Social/interaction aspect of ASD?
Floor Time
Social Stories (could)
Pyramid Approach
Which methods focus on the Neurology of ASD
Sensory Integration
Pyramid Approach
Which methods treat ASD as a primarily Behavioral disorder?

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