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Scientific Revolution


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an organized, often officially encouraged massacre or persecution of a minority group, especially one conducted against Jews, often used to redirect public anger from the government
Realist Authors
Dickens, Eliot, Flaubert, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Zola
cult of domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
New Imperialism
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories. Highly driven by technological advances.
Ernest Rutherford
British physicist (born in New Zealand) who discovered the atomic nucleus and proposed a nuclear model of the atom (1871-1937)
Max Planck
German physicist whose explanation of blackbody radiation in the context of quantized energy emissions initiated quantum theory (1858-1947)
George Sand
French writer known for works concerning women's rights and independence (1804-1876)
Louis Pasteur
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization "valued imagination and emotion over rationality"
Berlin Conference
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
papal infallibility
belief of the Roman Catholic Church that God protects the Pope from error when he speaks about faith or morality
French socialist who argued that property is theft (1809-1865)
Suez Canal
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882. (p. 726)
natural selection
the process by which favorable traits that are heritable propagate throughout a reproductive population: individual organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with unfavorable traits.
Greatest German poet and novelist and dramatist who lived in Weimar (1749-1832)
Romantic Musicians
Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz, Chopin, Liszt, Verdi, Stravinsky
Alfred Nobel
Swedish chemist remembered for his invention of dynamite and for the bequest that created the Nobel prizes (1833-1896)
Cecil Rhodes
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe
Percy Shelley
English Romantic Poet (Prometheus Unbound)
Emmeline Pankhurst
English feminist-militant in her demands-heckled politicians and held public demonstrations
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
Impressionist Artists
Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas
Sir Walter Scott
wrote "Ivanhoe" which idealized the Middle Ages
Those (mostly female) who were active in seeking voting rights for women as an inherent right for all individuals in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Post-Impressionist Artists
Cezanne, Van Gogh, Munch, Klimt, Picasso
Herbert Spencer
"Survival of the fittest"; Social Darwinism between societies and cultures
Marie Curie
French chemist (born in Poland) who won two Nobel Prizes one (with her husband and Henri Becquerel) for research on radioactivity and another for her discovery of radium and polonium (1867-1934)
English inventor who found a way of making steel stronger
Dreyfus Affair
A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of comitting treason, really done by Catholic. Family and leading intellectual individuals and republicans like Zola wanted to reopen the case. Split in two, first army who are antisemetic and Catholic, and other side the civil libertarians and more radical republicans. Result is government severed all ties with church, no longer priests in state schools, catholicism loses a lot of power of indoctrination.
Friedrich Nietzsche
A German philosopher who believed that the strength that produces heroes and great artists springs from something beyond reason. He criticized Christianity and democracy for empowering the mediocrity of the sheeplike masses.
Realist Artists
Courbet, Millet, Daumier
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882), Wrote "The Origin of Species" and "The Descent of Man"
a romantic English poet whose work was inspired by the Lake District where he spent most of his life (1770-1850)
Indian Mutiny
discontent with British administration in India led to numerous mutinies in 1857 and 1858 the revolt was put down after several battles and sieges (notably the siege at Lucknow)
Kaiser Wilhelm II
the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Boer War
Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908).
Victor Hugo
Writes Hunchback of Notre Dame, equated freedom in literature with liberty in politics and society. Starts out Conservative, renounces ways, opposite of Wordsworth. Also Lai Miserabs-Miserable Ones, France from Napoleanic Wars to 1848. Romantic author
opposition to any form of government; the theory that all governments should be abolished
Motivations for New Imperialism
Profits, Economics, Social imperialism (solution to overpopulation), Nationalism, Religion and missionaries, Social Darwinism, Balance of Power Politics
Albert Einstein
German-born physicist whose work undermines Newtonian physics, Theory of special relativity postulated that time and space are relative to the viewpoint of the observer and only the speed of light is constant. States that matter and energy are interchangeable and particle of matter contains enormous energy.
a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine
Edward Bernstein
Founder of revisionist socialism, believed that socialists should work for reform within capitalist framework instead of violent revolution

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