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Levels of Biological Organization
Atoms > Molecules > Organelles > Cells > Tissues > Organs & Organ systems > Organism > population > communities > ecosystems
7 Properties of Life
1. Order 2. Evolutionary Adaptation 3. Response to the ENvironment 4. Growth and Devlp 5. Reproduction 6. Energy processes 7. Regulation
Arrangemennt and interactions of parts as complexity increases
Emergent Properties
Examines natural structures and processes as accurately as possible using descriptions and analyses based on OBSERVATIONAL DATA
Observation based science (book-discovery science)
Examines using descriptions and analysis based on experimental data
Experimental based science
Logic flows from general to specific (If, then)
Deductive Reasoning
What happens when you change the number of protons?
THe element changes
Changing the number of neutrons
changing number of electrons
ions - when number of protons and electrons in atom is =, atom has no charge
covalent bond of same element
sharing of a pair by electrons by 2 atoms
covalent bonds
atoms sometime strip electrons from their bonding partners; attraction b/e cation and anion
ionic bond
Hydrogent atoms covalently bonded to one electronegative atoms
Hydrogen Bonds
Making or breaking of chemical bonds leading to changes in composition of matter
chemical reaction
The reactivity of an atom arises from A. the average distance of the outermost electron shell from the nucleus B. The existance of unpaired electrons in the valence shell C. The sum of the potential energies of all the electron shell D. The potential
Which statement is true of all atoms that are anions? - THe atom has more electrons than protons - the atom has more protons than electrons - the atom has few protons than does a neutral atom of the same element - the atom has more neutrons than proto
atom has more electrons than protons antion - negatively charged ion
4 Water properties
1) Cohesive Behavior 2) Ability to moderate temperature 3) Expansion ions upon freezing 4) Versatility as a solvent
Why is water cohesive?
because of hydrogen bonds
why does water have the ability to moderate temperature?
high specific heat
water molecules stick to some other substances
collectively, hydrogen bonds cause water to stick to eachother
hydrogen bonds
Liquid that is a completely homogenous mixture
dissolving agent
substance being dissolved
stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid
Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which property of water is most directly responsible for the ability of sweat to lower body temperature - Water's change in density when it condenses - Water's ability to dissolve molecules in t
-The absorption of heat by the formation of hydrogen bonds
The bonds that are broken when water vaporizes are -Ionic bonds -Hydrogen bonds between water molecules -Covalent bonds between atoms within water molecules -Polar covalent bonds -Nonpolar covalent bonds
- Hydrogen bonds between water molecules
Which of the following is a hydrophobic material? - Paper - Table salt - wax - sugar - pasta
- wax
organic molecules only consist of carbon and hydrogen
serve as major fuel for cells & as raw material for bulding molecules
dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides
disaccharides are formed by...
glucose linkage
purpose of polysaccharaides
storage and structural roles
storage in animals? storage in plants?
glycogen; starch
structural polysacc. - exoskeleton of arthopods and cell walls of fungi
2 fatty acids and phosphate group - attached to glycerol
purpose of proteins
structural support, storage, transportation, cellular communications, mvt, defense against foreign substances
To join two monomers in a biological system, the chemical rxn most often used is... A. Dehydration B. Hydrolysis C. Replication D. Transcription E. Translation
A. Dehydration
Which of the following chemicals is used to store energy in a form that can be accessed directly and imediately for use in most cellular processes? ATP, carbs, DNA, lipids, RNA?
To break a monomer away from a biological polymer, the chem rxn most often used is... dehydration, hydrolysis, replication, transcription, translation?
type of protein that acts as a catalyst - SPEEDS UP chemical reaction
proteins are linked by what kind of bonds?
peptide bonds
type of cell that does not have membrane bound organelles, no nucleus
prokaryotic cells
DNA in a region of prokaryotic cells is called..
contains most genes in eukaryotic cells
encloses nucleus, separating contents from cytoplasm - has lipid bilayer
nuclear envelope
functions of smooth ER (4) SMDS
-Synthesizes lipids - Metabolizes carbs - detoxifies poison - stores calcium
Functions of rough ER (3)
- secretes glycoproteins - distributes transport vesivles, proteins surrounded by membrane
Parts of endomembrane system (6) NEVLGP
o Nuclear envelope o ER o Golgi Apparatus o Lysosomes o Vacuoles o Plasma Membrane
organelle: packing & shipping
golgi apparatus
3 different types of lysosomes
1) food vacuole - phagocytosis 2) contractile - pump excess water out 3) central - hold organic compounds
site of cellular respiration site of photosynthesis
mitochondria chloroplast
network of fibers extending throughout cytoplasm, ANCHORING organelles
functions of microtubules
- shaping of the cell - guiding movement to organelles -separating chromosomes during cell division
function of microfilament
- motility
since animal cells do not have cell wall - they have...
ECM - extracellular matrix
which statement correctly characterizes bound ribosomes? A- B rib are enclosed in their own membrane B- B and free rib are structurally different C- B rib generally synthesize membrane proteins and secretory proteins D- most comon location for bound r
What structure is NOT part of the endomembrane system? nuclear envelopte, chloroplast, Golgi app, plasma membrane, ER
chloroplast o Nuclear envelope o ER o Golgi Apparatus o Lysosomes o Vacuoles o Plasma Membrane
which structure-function is mismatched A. nucleolus; production of ribosomal subunits B. lysosome: intracellular digestion C. ribosome: protein synthesis D: Golgi: protein trafficking E: microtubule: muscle contraction
E. microtubule: muscle contraction microtubules are for shaping the cell, guiding mvt to organelles, and separating chromosomes microFILAMENTS are for muscle contractions
Catabolic pathways & Example
Breakdown pathways - Ex: cellular respiration sugar glucose and other organic fuels break down in presence of oxygen to carbon and water
anabolic pathways
consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones
net release of energy is spontaneous
exergonic reaction
use of exergonic process to drive endergonic
energy coupling
reduce productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active site
competitve inhibitors
bind to another part of enzyme - causes enzyme molecule to change shape - active site becomes less effective at catalyzing and conversion substrate --> product
noncompetitive inhibitor

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