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Bio CH 8


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small particles of energy. Energy of a photon is inversely proportional to wavelength.
Excited state
when a molecule absorbs a photon of light energy, one of its electrons becomed energized, which means that the electron shifts from a lower-energy atomic orbital to a higher energy orbital- distant from the atomic nucleus.
Ground state and fleuresnce
The condition in which all of its electrons are in their normal, lowest-energy levels. Its energy dissipates as heat or an emmision of light if a loner wavelength than the absorbed light-fluroesence.
excited state and photosynthesis
the excited electron may leave the atom and be accepted by an electron acceptor molecule, ehich becomes reduced in the process.
Chloraplast structure
The innermembrane encloses a fluid-filled region called the stroma (which conatins the enzymes). Disc-like sacs called thylakoids. The thylakoid membrane encloses a fluid-filled interior space, thylakoid lumen. Stacks of thylakoids are grana.
absorbs light in the red and blue regions of the spectrum. Has a ring-porphyrn that absorbs light energy, long side chain that makes it non-polar.
yellow & orange. absorb different wavelenghts. Protect chloraphyll.
Light-dependent rcns
the energy from sunlight phosphorylates ADP and reduces NADP+
In the thylakoid membrane, chlorapyhll molecules are grouped into these clusters.
Rcn center chloraphylls
P700- PS1
P700 and P680 & e-
at the center, an e- is raised to an excited state, and this hi-energy electron is transferred to an e- acceptor.
Noncylcic e- transport
(ps I)
(1) chloraphyll molecule absorbs a photon.
(2) An e- in P700 is excited
(3) The e- is passed along an ETC
(4) The last acceptor is ferredoxin.
(5) this transfers the e- to NADP+.
(6) NADPH is then released into the stroma
(7)Photosystem 2 donates an electron to P700
P680 and its electron hole
Photolysis of H2O
(1) P680 has a molecule so strong it can pull e- from H2O.
(2) water is broken down into 2e-, 2 protons, & 1/2 O2.
(3) Each e- is donated to P680
(4) protons released into thylakoid lumen.
Calvin cycle
Co2 uptake, Carbon reduction, RuBP regeneration
CO2 uptake
(1)CO2 reacts with RuBP, catalyzed by rubisco.
(2)2 molecules of PGA produced.
Carbon reduction
Reducing power from ATP and NADPH are used to convert PGA molecules to G3P.
RuBP regeneration
2 G3P molecules are removed. 30 carbons all rearrange into 6 molecules of RuBP.

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