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Philo 1a

Terms

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Induction
The process of reasoning in which one concludes from the individual cases to the existence of general laws or principles
Acosmism
The doctrine which denies or doubts the validity of our experiential knowledge concerning the existence and reality of a material world; immaterialism
A Posteriori
Argument drawn from effects, consequents, or fact
Appetency
The tendency of one thing toward another
A Priori
Argument drawn from definitions formed or principles assumed, or which infers effects from causes previously known
Certitude
The mental state in which the mind gives a firm assent to a judgment without fear of the possibility of error, due to recognized valid reasons
Criteriology
The science of the criteria or tests of truth. Frequently used synonymously of epistemology
Deduction
The process of reasoning in which we conclude from the general law or principle to a particular instance falling under the general law or principle
Deontological Ethics
Any ethics which does not make the theory of obligation entirely dependent on the theory of value, holding that an action may be known to be right without a consideration of the goodness of anything, or known to be so even though it does not flow from the agent's best motive (or even from a good one) and does not, by being performed, bring into being as much good as some other action open to the agent. Opposed to axiological ethics
Disparate
Ideas are disparate when they neither necessarily include nor necessarily exclude each other.
Dualism
The theory that physical objects are independent in their existence and nature from the mental act of perception and knowledge; that there is an essential distinction between "mental" and "real" objects and events, so that the latter exist irrespective of whether known or not known by a perceiver
Empiricism
The doctrine which denies or doubts the validity of all intellectual knowledge and admits only the certainty of sense-knowledge
Fideism
The traditional doctrine which holds that all our knowledge must begin with an act of faith in divine revelation, since human reason is impotent to arrive at any certitude regarding the fundamental truths necessary for man to know; also, the doctrine that such truths can be known only by an affective act of faith
Freedom
In the widest sense, the absence of external coercion or restraint which hinders an appetency from expressing itself in external action; in the strict sense, the absence of intrinsic necessity or determination in the performance of an act
Individuality
That state of an existing being in virtue of which it is one and non-multipliable

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