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Sedatives

Terms

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Alprazolam (Xanax)
Benzodiazepine. Tx of anxiety.
chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
benzodiazepine. Sedation. Relief of anxiety.
diazepam (Valium)
benzodiazepine. Relief of anxiety; sedation; amnesia; skeletal muscle relaxation; decreased seizure activity.
lorazepam (Ativan)
Benzodiazepine. Sedation; decreased anxiety; decreased seizures. Pre-op sedation.
estazolam (ProSom)
BEnzodiazepine. Hypnotic for insomnia.
flurazepam HCl (Dalmane)
Benzodiazepine. Relief of insomnia.
temazepam (Restoril)
Benzodiazepine. Relief of insomnia.
zolpidem (Ambien)
Non-Benzodiazepine Sedative/Hypnotic. Sedation and induction of sleep.
chloral hydrate (Noctec)
"Other" Sedative/Hypnotic. Sedation or induction of sleep.
ethchlorvynol (Placidyl)
"Other" Sedative/Hypnotic. Short term insomnia.
pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal Sodium)
Barbiturate (Short Acting)
secobarbital sodium (Seconal Sodium)
Barbiturate (Short Acting)
Amobarbital sodium (Amytal Sodium)
Barbiturate (Intermediate-Acting)
What is REM
Rapid Eye Movement
How long are the 4 cycles of REM & NON-Rem?
90 minute intervals
Difference btw sedative & hypnotic
Sedative relieves nervousness, no sleep unless increase dose. Hypnotic produces sleep in usual dose
3 classes of sedative-hypnotics
barbiturates
Benzodiazepines
Non-barbiturates (ther/misc)
Neurotransmitter that sedative-hypnotics affect
GABA
Four uses of barbiturates
Sedation
Sleep
Seizure Disorders
Anesthesia/Barbiturate Coma
Barbiturate most frequently prescribed
Phenobarbital (often w/Dilantin for seizures)
Names of barbiturates given for sleep:
(Nembutal) Pentobarbital Na
(Seconal) Secobarbital NA
(Amytal) Amobarbital Na
Effect of chronic use on sleep cycle
If used regularly for insomnia, they are usually not effective for longer than 2 weeks
TX for barbiturate overdose
Improve ventilation
Maintain airway
Activated charcoal
Diuretic (loop)
Dialysis
Name 3 non-barbiturate hypnotics
chloral hydrate (Noctec)
ethchlorvynol (Placidyl)
Eszopiclone (Lunesta)
4 reasons why benzodiazepines preferred over barbiturates
Rarely fatal OD's
Less tolerance produced (can be used longer)
Less stimulating of liver enzymes
Not as much REM suppression
5 uses for Benzodiazepines
anxiety
insomnia
seizures
alcohol withdrawal
skeletal muscle spasam
pre-op meds

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