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pathophysiology chapter 19


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Innate or non \specific immune defence
1st line of defence. Rapid, Nonself Recognition. Skin, mucous membranes, phagocytes, antimicrobial molecules, inflamation, fever.
Cells:phagocytes(macrophages, neutrophils, NK, dendritic cells.
Adaptive or specific immunity
Slow. Very large. Specific to microbe and antigens. Nonself recognition. Memory, more rapid and efficient with subsequent exposure.
Cell killing tagging of antigen by antibody. T and B lymphocytes
B cells.
Function, potential, maturation site.
Mature in bone marrow.(can migrate to peyers patch
and spleen and liver for maturation) Responsible for humoral immunity. Can be transform (with T cell help) into memory B cells or antibody secreting plasma cells.
Antigen /Immunogen
Substance foreing to host that can stimulate an immune response
Antigens determinants or epitopes
Molecular region on the surface of an antigen capable of eliciting an immune response and combining with specific antibodies. Antigens may contain multiple epitopes
Antigen to small to stimulate an immune response unless combine with larger protein molecules
Penicilling allergy, in relation to Haptens
Penicillin is a hapten, in some individuals it can combine with large proteins andd cause an allergic reaction.
Humoral immunity
Immune responce by B cells, derived plasma cells ( antibodies), that travel in the blood and interact with circulating and surface cells
Cell mediated immunity
immune response mediate by T cells
Class I MHC
Present in virtually all nucleated cells. Present processed antigens to cytotoxic CD8 T cells, restric cytolysis to virus infected cells, tumor cells, and transplanted cells.HLA: HLA A, HLA B, HLA C.
Class II MHC
Present in immune cells, antigen representing cells, Bcells, and macrophages. Present processed antigenic fragments to CD4 T cells, necessary for interaction among immune cells
T cells
Arise from BM but migrate to thymus for their maturation
75%. Displays antiviral, antitoxin, and antibacterial properties, only Ig that crosses the placenta, responsable for protection of newborn,activates complement and binds to macrophages.
15%. Predominant Hg in body secretions, such as saliva, nasal and respiration secretion, and breast milk, protects mucous membranes.
10%. Forms the natural antibodies such as those fo ABO blood antigens, prominent in early immune responses, activates complement.
0.2%. Found in lymphocytes, needed for maturation of B cells.
0.004%. Binds to mast cells and basophils, involve in parasitic infections, allergic and hypersensitive reactions.
T-cells functions
Activations of other T-cells and B-cells, in the control of intracellular viral infections, rejection of foreign grafts,in delayded hypersensitive reactions.
Helper T-cells,
CD4 helper T cell. "master regulator for the immune system". Activated by MHC II.
T Cytotoxic cells
CD8 cytotoxic T cells. Activated by MHC I,
IgG in ralation to titers
IgG class of antibodies increase during the acute phase and remains high during the acute phase and remains elevated until or beyond resolution.
IgM in ralation to titers
IgM specific antibodies generally rise and fall during the acute phase of the disease.
Natural Killer cells
NK cells kills foreing cells automatically, no activation needed, Kills cells by producing pore forming proteins,enzymes and toxic cytokines. Prone for virus infected cells.
Central lymphoid organs
Bone marrow, thymus, Provides environment for immune cell production and maturation.
Peripheral lymphoid organs
Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, appendix, Peyer's patch, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue in respiratory, GI and reproductive system. Trap and process antigens and promotes interaccion with mature immune cells.
Thymus function
Generates mature T-cells.
Through thymic selection, selects only functional T-cells.
Spleen function
Filters antigens from blood, important response in systemic infections.
Activates endothelium and lymphocytes, induces fever and acute phase responce, stimulates neutrophil production.
Exerts antiviral activity in body cells, induces class I antigen expression, activates NK cells
Tumor necrosis factor, TNF
Induces inflamation, fever, and acute phase responce, activates neutrophils and endothelial cells, kills cells through apoptosis.
Cytokines that are Major mediators in the imflammatory response
Interleukin 1, IL6, and TNF
Cytokines in Hematopoiesis.

Colony stimulating factors
Cytokines that stimulate bone marrow pluripotent stem cells and progenitor to produce large numbers of plateles, erythrocystes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and dendritic cells
Active immunity
Adquired by immunization or having the disease.
Passive immunity
Temporary, transfer of antibodies against an antigen. Fast acting, short term.
Activation of complement systems results in:
The complement system is a primary effector for:
Both innate and adaptive humoral immune response.
soluble protein molecule.
can engage in cell distruction
Lysis and destruction of cell membranes of body cells or pathogens.
Coating of antigens so that it can be easily engulfed and digested by the macrophages and other phagocytic cell
Chemical attraction of neutrophils and phagopcytic cells to the antigen
Activation of mast cells and basophils with release of inflamatory mediators that produce smooth muscle contaction and increase vascular permiability
the ability of the immune system to be nonreactive to self antigens while producing immunity to foreing agents
Immunoglobulin that crosses the placenta and provides immunity for the infant in the first 3 to 6 month of life

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