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Social Psychology Exam 1


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What are some questions social psych asks?
How much of the world is in our heads?
Would you do cruel things if ordered to?
To help or not to hel?
Depending on how you think of a person, you ___ their ___ in different ways.
We behave differently in different ___
__ __ is the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another
Social psych
Today, the emphasis on Social psych is power of the ___. power of the __. Importance of __. __ social psych
Power of the situation is the __, __ the person is in. For example: terrorists raised in culture that emphasizes evil
Power of the person means what makes people __ differently to stress and trauma?
Importantce of cognition is a newer emphasis. How we think differently bout people. are we __ or control or not.
Applied social psych means applying social psych principles to the __ by solving problems and ___ people
Values creep into social psych in __ __ and who is attracted to social psych... Generally radical people who want to change the world, want to help ___
researcg topics.

Values as a ___ of research...just trying to describe, aking to moral judgements
Science is ___. They interpret nature through their own lenses. People have __-

Once you see things a certain way, it's hard to see it in a __ __ (Ex: team loyalty)
Different way
Scientists are ___ in ___. They share views of teh culture. "The fish doesn't know he's went until he goes out of the water"
embedded culture
Concepts have hidden ___. (be careful of "___ givers") Ex: self-actualization by Maslow
Social psychology does not mean "___". They are trying to __ the differences, not tell you __ things should be
__ __--when a description becomes a prescription.
Naturalistic fallacy
The '__' ___ = we tend to mention it after we already know facts. (like hindsight bias)
'duh' phenomena
__ __ = everything is clear, once it's been figured out

(Ex: test question seemed hard until you knew answer)
hindsight bias
Common sense can sometimes be ___.

Ex: silver meadalist vs. bronze
___ = integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events and facts.
___ = it lets us test a theory, give direction to research, and can make a theory practival
What makes a good theory? (4 things)
* Summarizes wide range of observations
* Makes clear predictions
* Generates new exploration (find new theories from the original one)
* Suggest practical application
___ means how they relate to one another. Doesn't prove ___. Just because two things are correlated, doesn't mean one thing caused the other...could be a __ __
3rd variable
__ __ is represented by r. Goes from +1.00 to -1.00
Correlation coefficient
Advantages of correlation vs. experimental research are... (3 things)
* Help predict outcomes in society doing study on.
* Can look at existing relationships (divorce rate, etc)
* Good for things you can't manipulate in the lab
When doing Survey Research, one must get __ __ (every person in the pop you're studying must have an equal chance of being surveyed). Usually, we don't have these, but __ samples instead.
random samples

Problems with survey research ____________ and __________.
* Needs to be representative
* Order and wording of questions
__ __ = manipulate variable to see effect on other variable.
Experimental research
Experimental Reserach Advantages.... (4 things)
* can get cause and effect
* Have control with independent and dependent variable
* Random Assignment creates equivalent groups
* Ethics of experiments
___ variable is manipulated while the __ variable is what is being measured.
May have to use ___ in experimental reserach. where you hide the real purpose for the study), or have a ___ (someone who is in on the study and manipulates the situation)

List the 7 steps in the process of social psych research.
1. Select topic
2. Search reserach literature
3. Formulate hypothesis
4. Select reserach method
5. Collect data
6. Analyze data
7. report results (best if in peer reviewed journal_
List the parts of an empirical research article (8)
1. Title (what article is about)
2. Abstract (short summary of experiment)
3. Introduction (NOT labeled, reserach questions, hypotheses)
4. Methods (labeled...includes participants, where they are from, a recipe)
5. Results (labeled)
6. Discussion (labeled...summary of results...further research questions)
7. Bibliography
8. Maybe graphs and tables in an appendix
Western cultures put __ traits first, while Eastern cultures tend to put more ___ first

Roles (mother, teacher, student, catholic, etc)
When you're around people who don't look like you, you becomes very _______________
aware of your physicality.
We all have ___-___, which are abstract mental templates that help organize our world around us.
Self-schemas are a mental ___. It's how you __ yourself

__ __ __: we attend to info relevant to our self-concept. For example: when we hear things that releate to our self-schema, our ears perk up (name, ballet, IWU, psych, etc)
Self Reference Effect
We are __ __, as we interpret others comments as though they are about us. We wonder if others are talking about or noticing us, when infact, people are not.
__ __: who we think we might be one day. This includes fears and hopes. Helps us guide our __ __
Possible selves

life goals
__ __: global self-evaluation. How worthy you think you are as a person. How you generally think about yourself.
Does being successful lead to good __-__ or vice versa???
To help a child's self-esteem, get them to do something they are __ __. They feel better about selves.
Good at
The Social self includes roles, social ___, social ___, successes and failures
The social self and ___ are the things you are involved in (daughter, club presidernt, valedictorian, etc)
Social ___ is all the groups we belong, gender, race, major. When you're outside your group, you don't feel as ___.
Social ___ is how you decide who you are.
You ___ yourself to others around you.
You ___ your abilities by comparing to others
REmember that someone will always be better than you at something
__ and ___--when you succeed at something, you feel better about yourself. Failure makes you feel __ about yourself.
Success and Failures

__ __ __ = we percieve our reflections in how we think we appear to others. It doesn't matter what people actually think, but how WE think they ___ us. This idea was presented by ___.
Looking Glass Self
An example of perceived self control is __ __ which is a sense that one is competent and effective,e distinguished from self-esteem. One's sense of self-worth. This is __ specific. More = better
__ of ___ = are you captain of your destiny or a victim of luck?
Locus of control
___ locus of control = you feel in control of your fate.
__ locus of control = outside forces determine fate
An example of locus of control is...
You did well on a test, so you think, "it was easy!" If you had done poorly, you would have thought, "that test was horrible!"
Explain Martin Seligman and his nutty dogs. What theory is this an example of?
Learned helplessness.
Dogs were in cages with electric currents and tried to get out, but were shocked. So, after awhile they gave up. He then put them in a cage with a trap door, but they didn't even try to get out. They didn't feel like they had any control so they weren't even going to try.
__ __ = the hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events.
Learned helplessness
Uncontrolled bad events --> ___________ --> learned helplessness
perceived lack of control
__-__ __ = the tendency to perceive ourselves favorably. We tend to see ourselves and "better than average"
Self-serving bias
With the self-serving bias, we are quick to take __ for good things and __ __ for bad things that happen to us. This is seen mostly in ___ for car accidents and sporting events.
blame others
Self-inflation is found mostly in __ cultures.
__ __ = good for health, but can cause you to do things because you have no doubt. Basically, you think nothing will ever happen to you.
Unrealistic optimism
__ __ __ = the tendency to overestimate the extent that others think the same way you do. You think everyone feels the same way you do about celebrities, movies, morals, etc.
False Consensus Effect
Self Presentation....Ways to make ourselves look good are __ __ and __ __
False modesty
Impression management
__ __ = putting ourselves down so we can be reassured. Kind of like wanting to appear humble to make a good impression. (when people tell about accomplishments in public, they play it down, but privately they __)
False modesty
__ __ = we manage the impression we create. We're always playing to an audince.
Impression management
Self-presentation = _____________________
wanting to present ourselves in the best possible light
With impression management, we __, __, etc. to look good to others.
Attributing casuality is _______
we are always trying to explain people's behavior. We always need explanations, particularly with things we don't expect.
__ __ = the theory of how people expain others' behavior by attributing it either to internal dispositions or external situations.
Attribution theory
The attribution theory was developed by __ __
Fritz Heider
We often __ traits (Attribution theory)
__ __ came up with a theory of Attributions which explains how we __ try to work this stuff out.

Ex: person sleeping in he tired, a slacker, sick, etc?
Harold Kelly
Information ___ and __ __ (first impressions) are a large part of attribution theory. It's hard to have a new view on someone introduced to you as a jerk
Information integration
primacy effect
__ __ = the most recent info is taken into account most.
Recentcy effect
__ __ __ = we tend to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the importance of traits when explaining other people's behavior.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Although we underestimate the importance of the situation when judging other's behavior, we do the ___ with OUR behavior
With others we say they are always "That characteristic," but with ourselves, we say, "oh we're only that way when _____________"
we are in a certain situation
Explanation for the Fundamental Attribution Error are _________________, __________, ___________, and ______
perspective changes over time
Actor/observer---we are always the ___ of our ___. When we watch others, they are the center of their universe and we don't pay attention to their ___, but with ouselves, we watch out ___
center universe
Perspective changes overtime---at first you think of a person associated with a ___ __, then after a certain amt. of time, you start to see the ___ surrounding that person
certain trait

__ __---the more you think about your behavior, the more you begin to think, "oh, this is who I am"
Culture--we have an ___'s all about you! Other cultures pay more attention to __ __, while our culture pays more attention to ourselves.
each other
__ and __ = when you see negative behavior, how do you react?

ex: driving and someone is tailgating you. Do you think they are jerks or do you think their wife might be pregnant?
Attribution and reactions
If there is negative beahvior....
1) __ Attribution --> ___ reaction

2) __ attribution --> ___ reaction
Dispositional --> unfavorable

Situational --> sympathtic
Social perceptions are in the ____________
eye of the beholder
__ __ = you like John Kerry before and after you hear a debate. People won't change their minds.
Spin Cycle
Even ___ events can be manipulated.

Ex: neutral expressions on faces can be interpreted differently depending on what you prime subjects with
__ __ = initial concepts stick around even with contradictory evidence. Or beliefs take on a life of their own.
Belief perserverance
The only way to combat belief perserverance is making a person _________________
explain the other side of the argument
We construct memories when ____________. What you know ___ affects wheat you knew then.
we pull them out

__ __ = we remember midly pleasant events more memorably pleasant than they actually were.
Rosy Retrospection
___ __ = sometimes you recall things that didn't happen. (happens in court cases)
Misinformation effect
__ __ studied the misinformation effect. Explain her famous experiment
Elizabeth Loftus

Showed 2 groups of college students the same film of a car crash. Then manipulated one word: Was glass broken when the cars CRASHED into each other? When the two cars SMASHED into each other, was the glass broekn? More people remembered the glass broken in the SMASHED group.
The ___ = part of our thinking is automatic. we know more than we THINK we know.
___ __ DO NOT WORK!!! (example of thinking without awareness)
subliminal messages
We tend to have high expectations for ____, but not realistic. More ___ than correct.

Ex: new year's resolution, test scores, etc.
Why are we so overconfident?

1) ___________
2) ____ ____
1) We were ALMOST right before, so maybe we'll be right this time

2) Confirmation bias
__ __ = don't seek info, or ignore info, that goes against our beliefs. Then we seek info that goes WTIH our beliefs
Confirmation bias
___ are a rule of thumb....a strategy to make quick efficient judgements.
Name trhee types of heuristics.
__ __ = Snap judgments of whether someone of something fits a category. We have mental representations of certain categories. We think people belong to ceratain groups if they have certain personalities.

Ex: Linda
Representativeness Heuristics
_ __ = quick judgments of likelihood of evens (how available in memory). May lead to overweighting vivid instances and thus, to fearing the wrong things.

Ex: list of diseases
Availability Heuristic
__ __ = you go back on yourself and think, if I'd just done this or just done that. But in actuality, nothing can be changed.

Ex: miss an A- by a couple points and think, "If only I'd studied harder at the beginning of the semester."
Confactual Thinking
__-___ __ = false beliefs that lead to their own fulfillment.

Ex: Teacher's expectations of their students. Danger of labeling kids early.
Self-fulfilling Prophecies
In a self-fulfilling prophecy... the perceiver forms expectations about the target -----> ______________ ----> Target ___ the perceiver's actions and responds so his/her behavior is ___ with the perceiver's expectations ---> leads to step one ag
Perceiver acts towards the target based on the expectations.

What are the ABC's of Social psych?
Define attitudes.
Favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction towards someone or something; shown in beliefs, feelings, intentions
Attitudes generate ___ towards others
A lot of times, what we say and what we ___ doesn't come out in our ___ all the time.
Explain moral hypocrisy.
Appearing moral while avoiding the costs of being so
Who came up with the idea of moral hyocrisy? What experiment did he do and what were the results?
He did studies with prizes and no prizes (dull). Then he had the students assign themselves to one task or the other. Only 5% said they would take the good task, but when it came down to it, 80% gave themselves the good task.
Moral hypocrisy shows that changing ___ by changing Attitudes isn't such a good idea.
List the times when attitudes DO predict behavior. (4)
1) when social influences are minimized
2) When other influences are minimized
3) When attitudes are specific
4) When attitudes are potent
What is the Bogus pipeline method?
Fake lie detector. It convinces people that this machine can detect their true attitude. YOu fool them into thinking this, and end up with honest answers.
It's easy to express __ attitudes under certain ___ conditions. Give an example.

Cirgarett comparies said they didn't think smoking was bad for health. Since one said it, they ALL said it
What is the bogus pipleline method an example of?
Social influences
What is the principle of aggregation?
Hard to predict a person's behavior from just one situation. You must look at a person in many situations to understand their behavior. Look at their general behavior instead of particular instances.
Give an example of attitudes predicting behavior WHEN ATTITUDES ARE SPECIFIC
If attitudes are too general, the're not a link between attitude and action. (I'm committed to health, doesn't tell you that person will exercise 3 times a week. BUT, if they said, "I think people should work out at least 3 times a week" it's more likely they do just that.
Give 2 examples of theories that say attitudes predict behavior when attitudes are potent.
Reflecting on attitudes
Direct experience with attitude
Explain what it means to reflect on attitudes.

Give an example.
Bound to follow through with actions. If people think about what they stand for, it's easier to predict their behavior.

Student in a room of mirrors will not cheat as much because they actually see themselves cheating
Explain the theory of direct experinece with attitude.

Give an example
You'll be more likely to show consistency with your thoughts if you've experienced something associated with your attitude.

Ex: you think we should feed and cloth the've been homeless yourself
We sometimes say what we think ___ __ __ __
others want to hear (Ex. of social influences
___ = a set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave.
List ways that behaviors determine our attitudes. (4)
1) Role playing
2) Forced to speak about something they doubt
3) Foot in the door
4) Evil and moral acts
When role playing, people are __ __ at first, but they they become comfortable with it. Going through the motions of something can affect how you think.

Give an example

When first come to college, you feel awkward, but after a few months, it's a part of who you are, because you acted the role
__ is ___ = when forced to speak about something they doubt, people begin to believe it!

Give an example.
Saying is Believing

you're forced to read positive things outloud about a person you've never met, and you begin to feel positively about this person.
People often adapt what they say to please their ___
Explain the foot in the door technique and give an example of a classic study.
people who are asked to do a small request, are likely to then to a larger request. You commit yourself publicly and then start to believe that it's important

Asked to put signs in their windows to support safety. Then asked to put ugly signs in their yard. Everyone agreed.
__ __ technique = tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to a low price, will usually agree if someone starts adding to the price. Why is this?

Because they feel like they've already committed to it
__ and __ __ = attitudes following behavior works for immoral behavior too. We hurt the people we ___, but we also start to ___ the people we hurt.
Evil and Moral Acts
Dislike (x2)
Give example of evil and moral acts experiment.
Cool robot on the told not to play with by either harsh or mild threat. Those with mild threat internalized the idea of not playing with robot, so they didn't play with it a few weeks later when they came back.
Give an example of when we change behavior to change people's attitudes.
Why do actions affect our behavior? Name 4 theories.
1) Self-presentation theory
2) Cognitive dissonance theory
3) Insufficient justification effect
4) Self-perception theory
__ __ Theory = we do or say things and then do the opposite or say the opposite to have people think WELL of us. (express attitudes that make us appear consistent)
Self-presentation theory
__ __ Theory = we change our attitudes because we need consistency amoung our thoughts. (Proposed by whom???)
Cognitive dissonance Theory

Leon festinger
We feel tension when two beliefs are psychologically ___. To reduce tension, we adjust our ___
__ __ Effect = you're more likely to internalize enjoyment if only paid $1. Give example.
Insufficient Justification Effect

Boring task study where paid money to say it was not boring then tested on how boring you thought it was.
__ __ THeory = when attitudes are weak, we observe ourselves from the outside. (When then try to figure out what our attitude is)
self-perception theory
Who proposed the self perception theory, which says we look to our words and actions to tell us what we ___
Daryl Bem

Research on facial expression says that if you force yourself to go through the ___ of feeling a certain way, you'll ___ yourself that you actually feel that way.
__ __ __ = if you pay people for what they enjoy, they start to enjoy it less. Example??
Over justification effect
Reading for fun.
Enjoyable activites that have no external rewards are self percived as, "___________________", which is called ___ motivation
"I do it because I like it"
Enjoyable activites with an external reward are self percieved as, "____________________" which is called ___ motivation
"I do this because I'm paid to."

List 5 ways to reduce cognitive dissonance.
1) change attitude to be consistent with behaviors
2) add cognitions
3) Alter the importance of the descrepancy (This is more imp. than what could happen to me)
4) Reduce perceived choice (I have no choice but to do this!)
5) Change attitudes to be consisten with behavior

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