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Psychology Ch.1


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the science of behavior and mental processes
the school of psychological thought that considered the structure and elements of immediate conscious experience to be the proper subject matter of psychology.
Wilhelm Wudnt
what did he do, in what year?
founded Psychology by establishing a lab in 1879 devoted to research on psychological topics.
Edward B. Titchener
popularized structuralism in English-speaking world
main technique employed in Structuralism
self exam of ones mental processes; Individual describes and analyzes thoughts as they occur
Drawbacks of Structuralism (2)
1) focused too narrowly on conscious experience
2) Introspection biased
school of psychological thought that was an outgrowth of Structuralism and was concerned with how the mind functions and how this functioning is related to consciousness
WIliam James
Leader of Functionalism (Psych.) and Pragmatist (Philosophy).

established one of the first Psych. labs in U.S.

Work: late 1800s.

What he said: o Argued that only knowing contents of consciousness (as the structuralists sought to do) was too limited and would never reveal the nature of the mind

⬢ Psych needed to strive to understand how those contents functioned and worked
Principles of Psychology

William James
How did the Functionalists broaden the scope of Psychology?
3 ways
1) Study of animals
2) Apply to education
3) Experimenting on overt behavior, not just mental processes
Gestalt Psychology
the school of psychological thought that argued that it is necessary to study a person’s total experience, not just parts of the mind or behavior, since conscious experience is more than simply the sum of its parts
Max Wertheimer and _____ ________ suggested that...
Kurt Koffka; conscious experience moroe than the sum of its individual parts
therapy for people w/ mental problems
Psychoanalytic Approach
the perspective developed by Freud, which assumes that emotional problems are due to anxiety resulting from unresolved conflicts that reside in the unconscious and treats these problems using the therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis
When did the behaviorist revolution occur
John Watson
-was leader of what movement
-what did he say psych should do?
Watsson said Psychology should focus on studying BEHAVIOR, rather than contents of conscious
-focus on what is scientifically measurable
-make psychology a true science
the approach to psychology that focuses on describing and measuring only what is observable, either directly or through assessment instruments. (behavior)
Behaviorism dominated psych in the US from the ____s to the ____s
20s to 50s
Who was the most recognized Behaviorist?
B.F. Skinner
What exactly did Skinner do?
• In the 40’s Skinner attempted to explain the causes of behavior by describing the relationships among events in the environment (stimuli), a person/animal’s reactions (responses), and the establishing of the learned connection between the 2 (conditioning).
-Accord to Skinner, our environment completely determines what we do.
What Two branches broke away from Behaviorism in the 60's and 70's?
Cognitive and Humanistic

Those who wanted to explore human potential were the Humanistic Psychologists

⬢ Those who wanted to explore thought processes were Cognitive Psychologists.
Humanistic Psychology
the psychological perspective that emphasizes positive human values and people’s inherent tendency toward personal growth.
Name two important Humanistic Psychologists
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
Cognitive Psychology
- the psychological perspective that focuses on the mental processes involved in perception, learning, memory and thinking
What are the 7 major Perspectives in Psychology?`
1) Psychoanalytical
2) Behaviorist
3) Humanistic
4) Cognitive
5) Biopsychology
6) Social and Cultural
7) Evolutionary

Biopsychology Perscpective (neuroscience perspective)
the psychological perspective that examines how biological factors affect mental processes and behavior and how behavior can changes brain function and structure
Social and Cultural Perspective
Takes into account Social and Cultural factors in studying psychological disorders or behavior/mental processes
Positive Psychology
⬢ The subfield of psychology that combines an emphasis on positive human values such as optimism and wellbeing w/ an emphasis on research and assessment

Important Note: Unlike Humanistic movement, Positive psychology has a sound research base.
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
(I/O Psychology)
The subfield of psychology that studies how individual behavior is affected by the work environment, co-workers, and by organizational practices
Evolutionary Psychology
- the psychological perspective that seeks to explain and predict behaviors by analyzing how the human brain developed over time and how that evolutionary history affects human brain functions and behaviors today
Clinical Psychologists
provide diagnosis and treatment of emotional and behavioral problems
-usually hold psychosocial viewpt.
Counseling Psychologists
Like Clin. Psychs, work with people who have emotional or behavioral problems. Administer tests and pscyhotherapy. Clinical and Counseling Psychologies are converging.

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