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Theoretical ideas about how semantic memory is organized (behavioral and brain-based)
Semantic retrieval leads to episodic encoding Aquiring new Semantic memories-Hippocampus L PFC-words, R PFC-nonverbal (faces), R frontal for episodic retrieval Semantic network weights familiarity/typicality effects Categories defined by experience/context Sem Priming-Spreading activation; probes w/ related primes have faster RT L Lat Temp Lobe-sem word processing Whorfian hypo/Lang affects experience frontal hippo-features posterior Hippo-functions
Factors that influence the success of transfer of learning for new concepts
establish consistant structure and then proceed to elaborative processing
Nitsch study on diff methods of learning: speed and generalization
experience/context nitsch and est structure and subsequent elab. processing (concreteness fading)
Scripts and Schemas- usefulness and potential pitfalls
Pros- Imply lots of knowledge with little given info organization/categories help us to remember more info/ helps to connect info expectations & exceptions to expectations lead to distinctive epi mem understanding language visual perception in scenes (picking stuff out) Cons-consistancy bias, cultural bias -can add info that's not there -
Disorders concerning Semantic mem...
Semantic Dementia->probs w/ connecting meanings of terms Temporo-frontal patients-> sequencing errors in ordering scripts
Problems of Schema Theories
don't have a schema for all info can add extra info that is part of script
Ebbinghaus vs Bartlett
E-rote learning is best for info with no structural framework B- Effort in comprehending meaning leads to connection to wider organization.
Good and Bad effects of organization/schemas
good-helps us to remember more info; helps connect info in sem. network cons- long time, potential errors w/ putting too much info together
characteristics of skilled memory
mneumonics->method o loci and speeches imagery->new vocab helps ground knowledge distinctively
imagery and mneumonics- why might they be helpful
1)encode using a preexisting framework 2)retrieval based on meaningful cues 3)make you/get better with practice
Type 1 vs type 2 processing
1-maintain in attn 2-incidental & intentional learning
Multi-store models... case for, Craik and Lockhart's case against: capacity, codes, forgetting, and serial pos curve
Case for- Broadbent's dichotic listening studies, attn moves info from sensory stores to STS Codes->failure to reach LTM b/c of matl (digits hard to relate to), time available to process info, ST matl usually not elaborated Cap-inconsistant 2-20 items, therefore perhaps processing limits memory, Forgetting->Familiarity, relation to prev knowledge, meaningfulness of cues, ser pos curve- primacy effect due to full attn/processing given, middle terms forgotten due to divided attn and limited processing, recency b/c we're lazy! (neg recency effect)
Probs for LOP and alts
Consolidation TAP what is deep?
alcohol and consolidation idea
experiment with remembering 2 sets of stories, drinking in between, alcohol inhibited interference of 2nd set of stories
context, mood, state effects
mood dep (match enco/retr), congruence (memories recalled agree with mood) effects context-agreement w. retr/enco state effects-high/drunk affects RECALL
Generate-Recognize model and probs
probs->encoding specificity, experience (perceived/attended to) affects how things are encoded.
TOT, why they occur
difference between accessability (can retrieve from mem) and availability (in mem, but may not be able to retrie!)
familiarity and recollection
rhinal cortex=familiar post hippo=recollection inclusion vs exclusion
implicit and explicit differences (5)
modality diff (aff impl more), Retention interval (> impl)interference(greater for expl) , LOP (priming unaff by elab.), Stat Ind (no corr bet impl and expl tasks) above can be explained by TAP and encoding specificity.
Priming and the brain-what determines which regions change?
If primed, less activation necessary. for object-Lat Vis cortex for meaning processing-dorsal prefrontal (all for novel vs. primed stims)
DPC-low conf recog, top-down proc, make decisions VPC- Bottom-up, integrate info, high conf

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