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The Monroe Doctrine
President Monroe claimed the United States of America, although only a baby nation at the time, would not interfere in European wars or internal dealings, and in turn, expected Europe to stay out of the affairs of the New World. The Western Hemisphere was never to be colonized again and any attempt by a European power to oppress or control any nation in the Western Hemisphere would be perceived as a direct threat to the U.S. This doctrine was announced by President James Monroe on 1823
Anaconda Plan
The Anaconda Plan is the name widely applied to an outline strategy for subduing the seceding states in the American Civil War. Proposed by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, the plan emphasized the blockade of the Southern ports, and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in two.
Indian Removal Act 1830
Signed into law by President Andrew Jackson, strongly supported by the South whom was eager to gain access to the lands inhabited by the "Five Civilized Tribes." Though the act was intended to be voluntary removal, significant pressure was put onto the tribes' chiefs to vacate and led to the inevitable removal of most Indians from the states
Great Awakening
It was a period of heightened religious activity, primarily in Great Britain and its North American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s. In New England, the Great Awakening was influential among many Congregationalists; while in the Middle and Southern colonies the Awakening was influential among Presbyterians.
The Enlightenment-
The Enlightenment era consisted of ideals such as: greater rights & liberties for common people based on self-governance, natural Rights, natural Law, central emphasis on liberty, individual rights, reason, and common sense. Took place during the 18th century. The documents such as the American Declaration of Independence, the United States Bill of Rights and the French Declaration were motivated by "Enlightenment" principles.
Cult of Domesticity
It was a view among upper and middle class white women during the nineteenth century. Women were believed to be more spiritual than men, pure in heart, mind and body, held in "perpetual childhood" where men dictated all actions and decisions, and a division between work and home, encouraged by the Industrial Revolution; men went out in the world to earn a living, home became the woman's domain where a wife created a "haven in a heartless world" for her husband and children. When: Popular in the 1700s, and early 1800s
Dorothea Dix
She was an American activist on behalf of the insane who, through lobbying state legislatures and the U.S. Congress created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses. When: 1800s
"Corrupt Bargain" of 1824
In the U.S. presidential election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure the required number of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House at the time, convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State. Some people believe that an agreement was made ahead of time between the two, denounced by the defeated as a "corrupt bargain."
Francis Cabot Lowell
American businessman from 1775-1817 who established the Boston Manufacturing Company—the first textile mill in America where all operations for converting raw cotton into finished cloth could be performed in one mill building—and pioneered selling $1000 shares of stock to the public. The Lowell system; the employment of women, ages 15-35, from New England farming families, as textile workers
Anne Hutchinson
She was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. Her brilliant mind and kindness won admiration and a following. Hutchinson held Bible meetings for women that soon had great appeal to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to boldly proclaiming facets of her own theological interpretations of the ministers' sermons of that day, some of which offended colony leadership. Great controversy ensued, and after an arduous trial before a jury of officials from both government and clergy, she was eventually banished from her colony. When: 1591-1643
Harriet Beecher Stowe
An abolitionist, wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin which Attacked the cruelties of slavery, and stirred up a lot of abolitionists. A quote from Abe Lincoln: "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war!" When: 1800s
Shay's Rebellion
was an armed uprising in Central and Western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. The rebels, led by Daniel Shays, were mostly poor farmers angered by crushing debt and taxes. Failure to repay such debts often resulted in imprisonment in debtor's prisons or the claiming of property by the state.
Missouri Compromise
In what came to be known as the Missouri Compromise, the Senate and House of Representatives worked out a deal that allowed Massachusetts' northernmost counties to apply for admission to the Union as a nonslave state called Maine while Missouri would be admitted as a slave state. With the admission of Missouri and Maine to the Union, the number of slave states and nonslave states remained equal at 12 each, which prevented the South from having more representation in the Senate than the North. In addition, slavery would be forbidden north of the latitude line that runs along the southern Missouri border for the remaining Louisiana Territory. Monroe signed Congress's bill reflecting the Compromise on March 6, 1820.
Mercantilism
It is an economic theory that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon the supply of capital. Economic assets, are represented by bullion (gold, silver, and trade value) held by the state, which is best increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations (exports minus imports). Mercantilism suggests that the ruling government should advance these goals by playing a protective role in the economy; by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, especially through the use of tariffs.
Frederick Douglas
He was an American abolitionist, woman's suffragist, and reformer. In 1872, Douglas was the first nominated African American vice presidential candidate. A former slave. A recruiter for the 54th Massachusetts regiment. Participated in the Seneca Falls Convention and signed the Declaration of Sentiments. When: 1800s
Bacon's Rebellion
Bacon's Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the Royal Governor of Virginia, William Berkeley. On July 30, 1676, Bacon and his makeshift army issued a Declaration of the People of Virginia, demanding that Indians in the area be killed or removed, and an end of the rule of "parasites." Effects: Governor Berkeley returned to power, seizing the property of several rebels and hanging 23 men. After an investigative committee returned its report to King Charles II, Berkeley was relieved of the governorship, and returned to England.
Joint-stock company-
It is a type of business entity: it is a type of corporation or partnership. Certificates of ownership or stocks are issued by the company in return for each contribution, and the shareholders are free to transfer their ownership interest at any time by selling their stockholding to others.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Meriwether Lewis and William Clark Expedition (1803-1806), headed by Meriwether Lewis,William Clark, and Indian Sacagawea, was the first American overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back. One of the most significant contributions of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was a better perception of the geography of the Northwest and the production of the first accurate maps of the area. During the journey, the expedition documented over 100 species of animals and approximately 176 plants.
First Continental Congress
It was a convention of delegates from twelve of the thirteen British North American colonies that met on September 5, 1774, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution. The Congress met briefly to consider options, an economic boycott of British trade, publish a list of rights and grievances, and petition King George for redress of those grievances.
Protestant Reformation
It was a Christian reform movement in Europe. It is thought to have begun in 1517 with Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. The movement began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church. Many western Catholics were troubled by what they saw as false doctrines and malpractices within the Church, particularly involving the teaching and sale of indulgences. Indulgences were the full or partial remission of temporal punishment due for sins. Another major contention was the practice of buying and selling church positions (simony) and what was seen at the time as considerable corruption within the Church's hierarchy. This corruption was seen by many at the time as systemic, even reaching the position of the Pope.
Compromise of 1877
The compromise essentially stated that Southern Democrats would acknowledge Hayes as President, but only if the Republicans acceded to various demands: 1.) The removal of all Federal troops from the former Confederate States. (Troops only remained in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida, but the Compromise finalized the process.) 2.) The appointment of at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes' cabinet. (David M. Key of Tennessee was Postmaster General). Hayes had already promised this. 3.) The construction of another transcontinental railroad using the Texas and Pacific in the South (this had been part of the "Scott Plan", which initiated the process that led to the final compromise); 4.) Legislation to help industrialize the South. Points 1 and 2 took effect almost immediately; 3 and 4 were never recognized
Albany Congress
It's also known as the Albany Conference, was a meeting of representatives of seven of the British North American colonies in 1754 (specifically, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island). Representatives met daily at Albany, New York from June 19 to July 11 to discuss better relations with the Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French.

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