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Radid Review II


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actinic keratosis
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
Addison's disease
primary adrenocortical deficiency
Albright's syndrome
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, cafe au lait spots, short stature, young girls
albuminocytologic dissociation
Guillain-Barre (+ protein in CSF with only modest + in cell count)
Alport's syndrome
hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
anti-basement membrane
Goodpasture's syndrome
anticentromere antibodies
scleroderma (CREST)
anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (ANA antibodies)
SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
anti-epithelial cell
pemphigus vulgaris
antigliadin antibodies
celiac disease
antihistone antibodies
drug-induced SLE
anti IgG antibodies
rheumatoid arthritis
antimitochondrial antibodies
primary biliary cirrhosis
antineutrophil antibodies
antiplatelet antibodies
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Marfan's syndrome
Argyll Robertson pupil
Arnold-Chiari malformation
cerebellar tonsilar herniation
Aschoff bodies
rheumatic fever
atrophy of the mamillary bodies
Wernicke's encephalopathy
Auer rods
acute myelogenous leukemia (esp. the promyelocytic type)
sickle cell anemia
Babinski's sign
UMN lesion
Baker's cyst in popliteal fossa
rheumatoid arthritis
"bamboo spine" on x-ray
ankylosing spondylitis
Bartter's syndrome
basophilic stippling of RBCs
lead poisoning
Becker's muscular dystrophy
defective dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne's
Bell's palsy
LMN CN VII palsy
Bence Jones proteins
multiple myeloma (kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
Berger's disease
-deposition of IgA in the mesangium

IgA nephropathy
Bernard-Soulier disease
defect in platelet adhesion
bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Birbeck granules on EM
-proliferation of histiocytic cells that closely resemble the Langerhans cells of the epidermis

another variant - hand-schuller-christian disease

histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
bloody tap on LP
subarachnoid hemorrhage
"blue bloater"
chronic bronchitis
blue-domed cysts
fibrocystic change of breast
blue sclera
osteogenesis imperfecta
boot-shaped heart on x-ray
Tetrology of Fallot; RVH
Bouchard's nodes
osteoarthritis (PIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)
Boutonniere's deformity
rheumatoid arthritis
branching rods in oral infection
actinomyces israelii
"brown tumor" of bone
hemorrhage causes brown color of osteolytic cysts: 1. hyperparathyroidism 2. osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen's disease)
Brushfield's spots
-light colored condensations on the surface of the mid-iris

Down's syndrome
Bruton's disease
- b-cell deficiency
-associated with tyrosine kinase gene, low levels of all Igs
-recurrent bacterial infections after 6 months of age in boys
-absecence of tonsils and germinal ceners

X-linked agammaglobulinemia
Budd-Chiari syndrome
posthepatic venous thrombosis
Buerger's disease
-seen in smokers
-intermittent clauddication, raynaud's, severe pain
small/medium artery vasculitis
Burkitt's lymphoma
8:14 translocation; associated with EBV
Burton's lines
- bluish line on the free border of the gingiva

lead poisoning
Wegener's granulomatosis; polyartheritis nodosa
cafe au lait spots on skin
Caisson disease
gas emboli
calf pseudohypertrophy
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Call-Exner bodies
-small follicles filled with eosinophilic secretions

granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary
cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
Chagas' disease
cerebriform nuclei
- dermal infiltrates of atypical CD4+ T cells w/ . . . .

mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Chagas' disease
trypanosome infection
primary syphilis (painless)
haemophilus ducreyi (painful)
Charcot's triad
multiple sclerosis: - nystagmus - intention tremor - scanning speech

cholangitis: - jaundice - RUQ pain - fever
Charcot-Leyden crystals
- crystalloids of eosinophil-derived proteins

bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)
Chediak-Higashi disease
phagocyte deficiency
cherry-red spot on the macula
Tay Sachs, Niemann-Pick disease, central retinal artery occlusion
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
central apnea in CHF and + intracranial pressure
"chocolate cysts"
endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
chronic atrophic gastritis
predisposition to gastric carcinoma
Chvostek's sign
hypocalcemia (facial muscle spasm upon tapping)
clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
DES exposure in utero
clue cells
gardnerella vaginitis
Codman's triangle on x-ray
cold agglutinins
mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis
cold intolerance
condylomata lata
-painless wart-like lesion that occurs on warm, moist areas

secondary syphilis
continuous machinery murmur
patent ductus arteriosus
Cori's disease
-alpha 1,4 - glucosidase
debranching enzyme deficiency
Cotton-wool spots
chronic hypertension
cough, conjuctiitis, coryza, fever
councilman bodies
toxic or viral hepatitis
Cowdry type A bodies
crescents in Bowman's capsule
rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
Crigler-Najjar syndrome
congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Curling's ulcer
acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
currant-jelly sputum
Curschmann's spirals
bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
Cushing's ulcer
acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
D dimers
depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder - rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
pellagra (niacin, vitamin B3 deficiency)
diabetes insipidus + exophthalmos + lesions of skull
-bone disease similar to histiocytosis X

Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
bug from dog or cat bite
pasteurella multocida
Donovan bodies
granuloma inguinale
Dressler's syndrome
post-MI fibrinous pericarditis
Dubin-Johnson syndrome
congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
frame- shift mutation

deleted dystrophin gene (X-linked recessive)
osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)
Edward's syndrome
trisomy 18 associated with rocker-bottom feet, low set ears, heart disease
Eisenmenger's complex
late cyanosis shunt (uncorrected, L to R shunt becomes R to L shunt)
elastic skin
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Erb-Duchenne palsy
superior trunk brachial plexus injury ("waiter's tip")
erythema chronicum migrans
Lyme disease
Fanconi's syndrome
proximal tubular reabsorption defect
"fat, female, forty and fertile"
acute cholecystitis
fatty liver
ferruginous bodies
Gardner's syndrome
-auto. dominant
colon polyps along with osteomas and soft tissue tumors
Gaucher's disease
build up of glucocerebroside
-hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic necrosis of femur, bone crises, Gaucher's cells (macrophages)

glucocerebrosidase deficiency
Ghon focus
primary TB
Gilbert's syndrome
benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia
defect in platelet aggregation
Goodpasture's syndrome
autoantibodies against alveolar and glomerular basement membrane proteins
Gowers' maneuver
Duchenne's (use of patient's arms to help legs pick self off floor)
Guillan-Barre syndrome
idiopathic polyneuritis
"hair-on-end" appearance on x-ray
beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoeisis)
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
diabetes insipidus + exophthalmos + lesions of skull

chronic progressive histiocytosis
sickle cell anemia
hCG elevated
choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
Heberden's nodes
osteoarthritis (DIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)
Heinz bodies
-altered hemoglobin precipites within RBCs

G6PD deficiency
Henoch-Schonlein purpura
-can be seen in young kids, post streptococcal in origin

hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with hemorrhagic urticaria and URIs
heterophil antibodies
infectious mononucleosus (EBV)
-increased levels of fetal Hb throughout life

thalassemia major
high-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)
wet beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)

dilated can also be caused by alcohol abuse, coxsackie B, chronic cocaine abuse, Chagas' disease, doxorubicin toxicity, hemochromatosis
Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis
HLA DR3 or -DR4
diabetes mellitus type 1 (caused by autoimmune destruction of beta cells)
Homer Wright rosettes
-most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in children

honeycomb lung on x-ray
interstitial fibrosis
Horner's syndrome
ptosis, miosis and anhidrosis
Howell-Jolly bodies
splenectomy (or nonfunctional speen)
Huntington's disease
caudate degeneration (autosomal dominant)
hyperphagia + hypersexuality + hyperorality + hyperdocility
Kluver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)
hyperpigmentation of the skin
primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)
hypersegmented neutrophils
macrocytic anemia
hypertension + hypokalemia
Conn's syndrome
hypochromic microcytosis
iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning
increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid / maternal serum
anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
increase uric acid levels
Gout, Lesch-Nyhan sydrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop and thiazide diuretics
adenovirus (causes hyperplasia of Peyer's patches)
Janeway lesions
-irregular, erythematous, flat, painless macules on the palms, soles, thenar and hypthenar eminences of the hands, tips of teh fingersm and plantar surfaces of the toes

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction
syphilis - overaggressive treatment of an asymptomatic patient that causes symptoms due to rapid lysis
Job's syndrome
-failure of gamma-interferon production by helper T cells

neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality
Karposi's sarcoma
-vascular tumor

AIDS in MSM (men who have sex with men)
Kartagener's syndrome
dynein defect
Kayser-Fleischer rings
Wilson's disease
Keratin pearls
squamous cell carcinoma
Kimmelstein Wilson nodules
diabetic nephropathy
Kluver Bucy syndrome
bilateral amygdala lesions
Koplik spots
Krukenberg tumor
gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastases
Kussmaul hyperpnea
diabetic ketoacidosis
lens dislocation + aortic dissection + joint hyperflexibility
Marfan's syndrome (fibrillin defect)
Lesch Nyhan syndrome
HGPRT deficiency
Lewy bodies
Parkinson's disease
Libman Sacks disease
-vegetations can be on both sides of valve leaflets

endocarditis associated with SLE
Lines of Zahn
-formed in areas of active blood flow
-alternate dark gray layers of platelets interspersed wtih lighter layers of fibrin

arterial thrombus
Lisch nodules
neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease)
low serum ceruloplasmin
Wilson's disease
Lucid interval
epidural hematoma
"lumpy bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence
poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
lytic bone lesions on x-ray
multiple myeloma
Mallory bodies
alcoholic liver disease
Mallory-Weiss syndrome
esophagogastic lacerations
McArdle's disease
muscle phosphorylase deficiency
McBurney's sign
MLF syndrome (INO)
-convergence is normal, nystagmus in abducting eye, medial rectus palsy on attempted lateral gaze

multiple sclerosis
monoclonal antibody spike
multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA),

MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance),

Waldenstrom's (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia
necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Wegener's and Goodpasture's (hemoptysis and glomerular disease)
needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals
Negri bodies
nephritis + cataracts + hearing loss
Alport's syndrome
neurofibrillary tangles
Alzheimer's disease
Niemann Pick disease
sphingomyelinase deficiency
no lactation postpartum
Sheehan's syndrome (pituitary infarction)
nutmeg liver
occupational exposure to asbestos
malignant mesothelioma
"Orphan Annie" nuclei
papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Osler's nodes
-soft, tender nodular cutaneous lesion in the pads of fingers or toes

owl's eye
painless jaundice
pancreatic cancer (head)
palpable purpura on legs and buttocks
Henoch Schonlein purpura
Pancoast's tumor
bronchogenic apical tumor associated with Horner's syndrome
rheumatoid arthritis
Parkinson's disease
nigrostriatal dopamine depletion
periosteal elevation on x-ray
pyogenic osteomyelitis
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
benign polyposis
Peyronie's disease
penile fibrosis
Philadelphia chromosome (bcr-abl)
CML (may sometimes be associated with AML)
Pick bodies
Pick's disease
Pick's disease
progressive dementia, similar to Alzheimer's
"pink puffer"
emphysema (centroacinar [smoking], panacinar [alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency])
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
esophageal webs with iron deficiency anemia
gout (MP joint of hallux)
podocyte fusion
minimal change disease
polyneuropathy, cardiac pathology and edema
dry beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)
polyneuropathy preceded by GI or respiratory infection
Guillan Barre syndrome
Pompe's disease
lysosomal alpha- 1,4-glucosidase deficiency associated with cardiomegaly
port-wine stain
positive anterior "drawer sign"
anterior cruciate ligament injury
Pott's disease
vertebral tuberculosis
pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangement
glioblastoma multiforme
Ewing's sarcoma
ptosis, miosis and anhidrosis
Horner's syndrome (Pancoast's tumor)
rash on palms and soles
secondary syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Raynaud's syndrome
recurrent vasospasm in extremities
RBC casts in urine
acute glomerulonephritis
recurrent pulmonary Pseudomonas and S. aureus infections
cystic fibrosis
red urine in the morning
paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg cells
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Reid index (increased)
chronic bronchitis
Reinke crystals
Leydig cell tumor
Reiter's syndrome
urethritis, conjunctivitis and arthritis
renal cell carcinoma + cavernous hemangiomas + adenomas
von Hippel-Lindau disease
renal epithelial casts in urine
acute toxic/viral nephrosis
rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent
rib notching
coarctation of the aorta
Roth's spots in retina
Rotor's syndrome
congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Rouleaux formations (RBCs)
multiple myeloma
Russell bodies
multiple myeloma
-end of rapid ventricular filling

L to R shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD), mitral regurgitation, LV failure (CHF)
aortic stenosis, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
Schiller-Duval bodies
yolk sac tumor
senile plaques
Alzheimer's disease
Sezary syndrome
cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Sheehan's syndrome
postpartum pituitary necrosis
Shwartzman reaction
a generalized reaction following two intravenous injections of endotoxin separated by 24 hours; it is characterized by widespread hemorrhages, bilateral necrosis kidneys, fall in leukocyte and platelet counts

Neisseria meningitidis
signet-ring cells
gastric carcinoma
Simian crease
Down's syndrome
Sipple's syndrome
-pheochromocytoma, medullary CA of the thyroid, and hyperparathyroidism

MEN type IIa
Sjorgen's syndrome
dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
skip lesions
slapped cheek appearance

erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)
Smith antigen
"smudge cell"
soap bubble on the x-ray
giant cell tumor of bone
spike and dome on EM
-nephrotic syndrome

membranous glomerulonephritis
Spitz nevus
benign juvenile melanoma
splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
starry-sky pattern
Burkitt's lymphoma
"strawberry tongue"
-caused by strep. toxin, rash begins on the trunk and neck, and then proceedds to the extremeties, sparing the face

Scarlet fever
streaky ovaries
Turner's syndrome
string sign on x-ray
Crohn's disease
subepithelial humps on EM
poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
suboccipital lymphadenopathy
sulfur granules
Actinomyces israelii
swollen gums, bruising, poor wound healing, anemia
scurvy (ascorbic acid, vitamin C deficiency) - vitamin C is necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
aortic valve stenosis
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl) hybrid

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