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clep history II


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The Southern states that had formed new governments by December 1865 had done all of the following EXCEPT
a. banned slavery.

b. banned wealthy Southerners from holding public office.

c. granted the vote to African American men.

d. renounced their secession laws.

e. agreed not to repay Confederate war debts
The most significant problem that Ulysses S. Grant faced in office was
a. the unraveling of Presidential Reconstruction.

b. the hostility of Radical Republicans.

c. the rapid progress of unregulated industrialization.

d. his lack of understanding of the nation's problems and his lack of political experience.

e. corruption in public office.
All of the following were considered women's work in the latter half of the 1800s EXCEPT
a. teaching.

b. sales clerking.

c. nursing.

d. practicing law.

e. secretarial work.
The first labor union to accept African Americans, women, and immigrants was
a. Industrial Workers of the World.

b. International Ladies Garment Workers.

c. American Federation of Labor.

d. Congress of Industrial Organizations.

e. Knights of Labor.
Industrial development in the second half of the 1800s occurred for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
a. a stable economy.

b. the rise of a middle class of managers who replaced business owners in the day-to-day management of businesses.

c. the continuing consolidation of multiple operations within one business.

d. the growth of the railroad system.

e. the availability of large amounts of investment capital.
Crédit Mobilier was an elaborate scheme
a. to give Native Americans on reservations less than their government allotments and pocket the difference.

b. to defraud the stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad.

c. to overcharge farmers for shipping.

d. to swindle the federal government of taxes on whiskey.

e. to swindle New York City of millions of dollars for tax revenue
The tariff controversy over the Tariff Act of 1883 was significant because
a. tariffs were raised to all-time highs.

b. the act harmed American farmers more than it helped American manufacturers.

c. the balance of payments for foreign trade tipped for the first time against the United States.

d. for the first time the two political parties differed sharply on tariff rates.

e. the tariffs pushed the nation into an economic depression.
Which of the following is a representative statement about what Social Darwinists believed?
a. Some societies are more fit to survive than others.

b. The government should intervene to help the less fortunate.

c. Government should be based on scientific principles.

d. Ruthless competition will winnow out weaker businesses to the benefit of society.

e. A laissez-faire government attitude is amoral.
In this anti-business cartoon, what does the club represent?
a. Big business

b. Republican support for government

c. Regulatory laws

d. The Populist Party

e. The power of the electorate
"If the church members were all doing as Jesus would do, could it remain true that armies of men would walk the streets for jobs, and hundreds of them curse the church, and thousands of them find in the saloon their best friend?"
The speak
a. Temperance movement

b. Urban reform

c. Gospel of Wealth

d. Social gospel

e. Settlement house staff
Which of the following statements is NOT true about the policy of revenue sharing?
a. Revenue sharing was the hallmark of President Nixon's program called New Federalism.

b. Revenue sharing was a way to return directly to states and municipalities a portion of income tax revenue.

c. Programs that were funded through revenue sharing could not engage in discriminatory practices.

d. States and municipalities could generally fund any kind of program they wished.

e. Revenue sharing took the form of block grants.
During whose administration was the term détente first used to describe United States foreign policy?
John F. Kennedy

Lyndon B Johnson

Richard M. Nixon

Jimmy Carter

Ronald Reagan
All of the following were true of the women's movement EXCEPT the
a. passage of Title IX.

b. founding of the National Organization for Women.

c. passage of the Equal Rights Amendment.

d. founding of Ms. magazine.

e. establishment of sexual harassment as abusive behavior.
A woman's place is in the home was the major cultural message for women
a. up to World War I.

b. until the 1920s.

c. in the years immediately after World War II.

d. up to the 1960s.

e. throughout the twentieth century.
Which of the following cases approved the consideration of race as one factor in an affirmative action policy?
a. Batson v. Kentucky

b. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

c. Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S.

d. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

e. Miller v. Johnson
The War Powers Act contains all of the following provisions EXCEPT a/an
a. 48-hour notification period if the President sends troops to an overseas conflict.

b. immediate withdrawal under a concurrent resolution of both Houses.

c. withdrawal of troops if Congress does not approve their deployment in 60 days.

d. exemption from the act if troops are sent at the request of the UN.

e. deadline extension of 30 days if it would be unsafe to withdraw troops sooner
This cartoon would most likely have appeared in a paper during which of the following?
a. Army-McCarthy hearings

b. Senate Watergate hearings

c. Iran-Contra hearings

d. Impeachment proceedings against Bill Clinton

e. Investigation into intelligence failures surrounding 9/11
President Gerald Ford gave which of the following as his reason for pardoning former President Richard Nixon?
a. To save the nation the expense of a trial

b. To avoid the bad publicity in the eyes of the world that a trial would bring

c. To avoid the divisiveness that a trial would cause in the nation

d. To spare the Nixon family the embarrassment of a trial

e. To avoid tying up Congress for months in the impeachment process
Stagflation in the mid-1970s was characterized by
a. a rise in prices accompanied by a decrease in purchasing power.

b. a drop in prices.

c. inflation accompanied by a rise in unemployment and flat economic growth.

d. stable prices and flat unemployment and economic growth rates.

e. slow business activity
"[Our] decision about energy will test the character of the American people and the ability of the President and the Congress to govern this nation. This difficult decision will be the 'moral equivalent of war'—except that we will be uniting our e
a. Lyndon B Johnson

b. Richard M. Nixon

c. Gerald R. Ford

d. Jimmy Carter

e. Ronald Reagan
The settlement house movement moved beyond its initial work
d. by lobbying local government to improve the conditions in which urban immigrants lived and worked.
The Camp David Accords were brokered between Egypt and Israel by which of the following presidents?
a. Richard M. Nixon

b. Gerald Ford

c. Jimmy Carter

d. Ronald Reagan

e. Bill Clinton
The major goal of the deregulation of industry was
a. to provide better service to consumers.

b. to decrease competition among businesses.

c. to cut the amount of paperwork industries had to fill out for the government.

d. to decrease prices.

e. to remove wage and price controls.
Reagan Democrats were most likely to come from which of the following group of voters?
a. Working-class white men

b. Working-class white women

c. Middle-class white men

d. Upper-class white women

e. Middle-class professionals, men and women
"It is my intention to curb the size and influence of the Federal establishment. . . . All of us need to be reminded that the Federal Government did not create the States; the States created the Federal Government. It is no coincidence that our pres
a. Theodore Roosevelt

b. Franklin Roosevelt

c. John F. Kennedy

d. Lyndon Johnson

e. Ronald Reagan
President Ronald Reagan gained unexpected support in Congress for his economic program of spending cuts from
a. moderate Midwestern Republicans.

b. conservative Midwestern Republicans.

c. conservative Northeastern Republicans.

d. conservative Southern Democrats.

e. moderate Western Democrats.
When the Iran-Contra scandal broke, Ronald Reagan contended
a. that it was legal.

b. that he know nothing about it.

c. that it was necessary in order to gain the release of U.S. hostages being held in Lebanon.

d. that the project was self-financing so that it did not affect U.S. taxpayers.

e. that it was undertaken so that Middle Eastern oil was not cut off.
The largest number of immigrants to come to the United States between 1980 and 1989 came from which nation?
a. Germany

b. United Kingdom

c. Soviet Union

d. Mexico

e. Philippines
Popular culture of the 1980s was characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
a. violence in movies and on television.

b. MTV and music videos.

c. emphasis on money and status.

d. decline in the influence of marketing.

e. rap music.
The purpose of the Persian Gulf War was
a. to end Saddam Hussein's rule in Iraq.

b. to take over Iraqi oil fields to maintain a steady supply of oil to the West.

c. to drive the Iraqis out of Kuwait.

d. to close terrorist havens in Iraq.

e. to enforce the embargo against Iraq
The major issue that dogged President George H.W. Bush throughout his administration was
a. the nation's problems with illicit drugs.

b. the quality of the nation's schools.

c. the Iranian hostage crisis.

d. the economy.

e. the nation's deteriorating relations with Europe.
The increasingly urban nature of the United States was caused primarily by
a. the pull of the city on the rural population.

b. natural increase of native-born Americans.

c. combination of natural increase and immigration.

d. steady wave of immigrants.

e. rapid industrialization of the United States.
Those most likely to be living in poverty as defined by the federal government are
a. Asian.

b. Midwesterners.

c. children under the age of 18.

d. white adults, male or female, ages 19–25.

e. white single men.
Immigrants from which nation were the first targets of specific immigration legislation?
a. Ireland

b. Germany

c. Italy

d. Russia

e. China
Which of the following was used against labor unions?
a. Interstate Commerce Act

b. Sherman Antitrust Act

c. Hepburn Act

d. Clayton Antitrust Act

e. Pacific Railway Acts
The Supreme Court ruled that the state had the right to regulate publicly owned services that affected the public interest in which of the following cases?
a. Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad v. Iowa

b. Muller v. Oregon

c. Pollock v. Farmers Loan & Trust Co.

d. United States v. EC Knight

e. Munn v. Illinois
The Dawes Act marked a change in policy toward Native Americans
a. by encouraging the preservation of their customs.

b. by allowing Native Americans to work part of the year for whites off the reservations.

C. by ending the practice of negotiating treaties with Native American nations.

d. by forcing all Native Americans onto reservations.

e. by opening the Indian Territory to white settlement.
What is the significance of the Battle of Wounded Knee?
a. For the first time there was solid evidence of an army massacre of unarmed women and children.

b. It marked the closing of the frontier.

c. It marked the end of the Plains wars.

d. It ended Native American resistance to white settlement in the Black Hills.

e. It opened the way for the building of the transcontinental railroad.
All of the following planks of the Populist platform of 1890 became law over time EXCEPT
a. direct election of United States senators.

b. secret ballot.

c. restrictions on undesirable immigrants.

d. national sales tax.

e. adoption of the initiative and referendum processes
Which of the following was the author of popular dime novels about young men who rose from rags to riches?
a. Mark Twain

b. Bret Harte

c. Hamlin Garland

d. Stephen Crane

e. Horatio Alger
The major area of disagreement between Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois centered on
a. the means to attain civil rights for African Americans.

b. the belief that segregation was not harmful to African Americans.

c. the usefulness of education.

d. whether African Americans should serve in the United States Army in the Spanish American War.

e. government aid to former African American slaves.
Plessy v. Ferguson established the principle of
a. one man, one vote.

b. separate but equal.

c. judicial review.

d. equal protection.

e. right to privacy.
The theory of conspicuous consumption was developed and applied to the rich in American society by which of the following?
a. Mark Twain

b. Karl Marx

c. Friedrich Engels

d. Thorstein Veblen

e. Jacob Riis
"You come to tell us that the great cities are in favor of the gold standard; we reply that the great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies. Burn down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic; bu
a. for dumping gold on the market.

b. that the nation's gold reserves should be increased.

c. against the free and unlimited coinage of silver.

d. for the replacement of the silver standard with the gold standard.

e. against passage of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
Queen Liluokalani was deposed
a. on orders of President Grover Cleveland.

b. by Hawaiian sugar planters.

c. by her own subjects who considered her weak.

d. by Americans eager to extend the Monroe Doctrine.

e. as part of the Spanish American War.
The primary purpose of the Open Door Policy was
a. to carve up China into spheres of influence.

b. to embarrass European nations into agreeing to its terms.

c. to follow up on the gains of the Spanish American War and enhance McKinley's re-election chances.

d. to ensure trading rights in China for the major European nations.

e. to ensure equal access to the China trade for the United States.
Yellow journalism, the de Lôme letter, and the Maine all contributed to which of the following?
a. Creation of the Pan-American Union

b. Autonomy for Puerto Rico

c. Formal protest against Spanish rule in the Philippines

d. The Spanish American War

e. The sending of 50,000 U.S. troops to the U.S-Mexican border
". . . the Pacific is the ocean of the commerce of the future. Most future wars will be conflicts for commerce. The power that rules the Pacific, therefore, is the power that rules the world. And, with the Philippines, that power is and will forever
a. U.S. industrialization

b. Manifest destiny

c. Low tariffs

d. U.S. imperialism

e. U.S. isolationism
Between 1877 and 1897, the presidency was characterized
a. by a lack of leadership.

b. by mostly strong presidents.

c. by a tug of war between president and Congress.

d. by an inability to gets things done because of Congressional obstructionism.

e. by the use of the veto to block legislation.
Which of the following would be an appropriate title for this cartoon?
a. "Uncle Sam, the Reluctant Schoolmaster"

b. "Uncle Sam Teaches the Art of Self-Government"

c. "Uncle Sam and the Big Stick"

d. "Uncle Sam and the Spanish American War"

e. "The Childish Nations Need Supervision"
The primary reason for United States' interest in the Russo–Japanese War was
a. concern over the balance of power in East Asia.

b. concern over any interest Japan had in the Philippines.

c. the safety of the U.S. fleet Port Arthur.

d. Japan's invasion of Manchuria.

e. the future of the Gentlemen's Agreement.
All of the following were muckrakers EXCEPT
a. Ida Tarbell.

b. Ray Stannard Baker.

c. Upton Sinclair.

d. William Dean Howells.

e. Lincoln Steffens.
Which of the following statements is NOT true about progressives?
a. Progressives tended to be middle class and well educated.

b. The umbrella term progressive covered often contradictory ideas.

c. Women were an integral part of the progressive movement and often took the lead.

d. In the guise of election reform, Southern progressives disenfranchised African American voters.

e. Progressives tended to be engaged in political reform rather than in efforts to reform social and economic abuses.
Which of the following was a decidedly American school of painting?
a. Impressionism

b. Post Impressionism

c. Ash Can

d. Surrealism

e. Pointillism
This photo is an example of
a. the use of photography as a new art form in the early 1900s.

b. the use of photography as a tool for the new discipline of sociology.

c. the use of photography as a tool of muckrakers.

d. the photos used by steamship companies to recruit new immigrants.

e. the photos immigrants sent to their families in the old country
William Howard Taft's administration compares favorably with the programs of Theodore Roosevelt in all the following areas EXCEPT
a. child labor and safety.

b. increased authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

c. tariff reduction.

d. conservation.

e. antitrust prosecution.
The Federal Reserve System was established in 1913 in an effort
a. to force private banks to lend more of their money reserves.

b. to replace the national bank.

c. to stop runs on banks.

d. to control the amount of money in circulation.

e. to dilute the authority of the secretary of the treasury.
Reaction to British disregard of U.S. neutrality at the beginning of the war was muted primarily because
a. of the large number of Germans who voted for Wilson in 1912.

b. Great Britain and the United States had a shared heritage.

c. Wilson did not want to go to war with Great Britain.

d. any end to trade with Great Britain would have damaged the U.S. economy.

e. Wilson did not want the Germans to win.
Germany's purpose in sending the Zimmerman Telegram was
a. to notify the United States that it was resuming unrestricted submarine warfare.

b. to apologize for the sinking of the Lusitania.

c. to inform its minister in Mexico to seek an alliance with Mexico.

d. to protest the United States' policy of neutrality.

e. to state formally its Sussex pledge.
All of the following characterized the home front during World War I EXCEPT
a. a campaign to sell Liberty Bonds to finance the war.

b. rationing of consumer goods.

c. a virulent anti-German campaign.

d. passage of an excess profits tax on corporations.

e. hiring of African Americans in war industries.
The first large-scale black nationalist movement was
a. Booker T. Washington's Atlanta Compromise.

b. W.E.B. Du Bois's Talented Tenth.

c. the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

d. Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association.

e. Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam.
President Woodrow Wilson's major mistake in the handling of the Treaty of Versailles was
a. his instructions to Democrats to veto it.

b. his unwillingness to include any high-ranking Republicans on the negotiating team.

c. his insistence on including the League of Nations in the treaty.

d. his resistance to including reparations for the Allies.

e. his forwarding it to the Senate to ratify.
All of the following are reasons why African Americans moved North in the Great Migration EXCEPT
a. early migrants encouraged those still in the South to come.

b. there were more economic opportunities in the North.

c. the sharecropping system had given way to large commercial farms in the South.

d. boll weevils attacked and destroyed much of the cotton crop several years in a row.

e. white mobs still practiced lynch law.
In 1920, women finally gained the right to vote primarily because
a. women could already vote in state and local elections in most Western states.

b. after 100 years women had worn down their opponents.

c. women could already vote in state and local elections in most Eastern states.

d. it was difficult to deny women the vote after their service in World War I.

e. hunger strikes and forced feedings of suffragists had turned public opinion in their favor.
All of the following fueled the Red Scare EXCEPT
a. the violence of the strikes that swept the nation in 1919 and 1920.

b. a series of bombs delivered to business leaders and public officials.

c. the evidence of a Bolshevist conspiracy to take over the United States.

d. the presence of radicals from Eastern Europe in the labor movement.

e. workers' calls for nationalization of industries.
A "return to normalcy" was the promise of which presidential candidate?
a. Woodrow Wilson

b. Warren C Harding

c. Calvin Coolidge

d. Herbert Hoover

e. Franklin D Roosevelt
Jessie Fauset, Langston Hughes, and James Weldon Johnson were all members of the
a. Niagara Movement

b. American Renaissance

c. Hudson River School

d. Harlem Renaissance

e. Lost Generation
The Scopes trial was significant because
a. it tested the legality of state-mandated curriculum.

b. it gave fundamentalists a wider audience for their views.

c. it brought Darwin's theory of evolution to the attention of more people.

d. it proved that some states refused to allow evolution to be taught in their schools.

e. it highlighted the tensions between older established value systems and new theories of science.
The major foreign policy issue in the 1920s was
a. disarmament.

b. forcing Germany and Italy to pay their reparations.

c. ending the Anglo-Japanese defense treaty.

d. entering into agreements to safeguard U.S. possessions in the Pacific.

e. achieving peace
The major theme of serious literature in the 1920s was
a. existentialism.

b. World War I.

c. disillusionment with U.S. society.

d. the prejudice of small towns.

e. the Jazz Age.
Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the popular culture of the 1920s?
a. The cult of celebrity made stars of such disparate people as movie actors, baseball players, and Charles A Lindbergh.

b. Advertising became important as a way to pay for radio broadcasts.

c. Popular culture created an image of what the good life had to offer Americans.

d. Popular culture promoted the consumption of goods.

e. One of the less important mediums for reaching Americans was the radio.
Which of the following statements is true about world trade in the 1920s?
a. A combination of Germany's default on reparations and the stock market crash adversely affected world trade.

b. By insisting on immediate repayment of war debts, the United States held down growth in world trade.

c. Tariff rates in major nations were at levels that had little effect on world trade.

d. The United States lowered its tariffs in an effort to stimulate world trade.

e. The stock market crash did not affect world trade.
The major flaw in the Kellogg-Briand Pact was
a. that not all nations signed it.

b. that nations could still defend themselves if attacked.

c. that outlawing war was a practical impossibility.

d. that popular opinion was against it.

e. that no provision was made for punishing nations that violated the pact.
All of the following were popular entertainers of the 1920s EXCEPT
a. Al Jolson.

b. Amelia Earhart.

c. Duke Ellington.

d. Charlie Chaplin.

e. Bessie Smith.
Which of the following statements best describes the significance of the election of 1928?
a. Al Smith picked up the votes of women, immigrants, urban workers, and small farmers.

b. A shift in the voter base of the two parties was apparent.

c. Anti-Catholic prejudice played a role in Al Smith's defeat.

d. Al Smith lost several traditionally Democratic states in the South.

e. Although Smith did not win any farm states, small farmers voted heavily for him.
Which of the following was NOT a direct consequence of the advent of the automobile age in the 1920s?
a. Development of the assembly line

b. The family vacation

c. Establishment of ancillary businesses such as gas stations and motels

d. The development boom in Florida

e. The development of a system of paved roads
The primary cause of the stock market crash of 1929 was
a. overproduction of goods.

b. bank failures.

c. underconsumption by consumers.

d. speculation.

e. inflation.
The primary reason that Prohibition did not succeed was because
a. the coastline was too long to patrol effectively against smugglers.

b. the enforcement agency, the Prohibition Bureau, was underfunded.

c. amateurs and gangsters alike turned to the manufacture and sale of alcohol.

d. prohibition was the crusade of rural areas only.

e. many Americans did not believe in prohibition.
The flapper has become a stereotype of which of the following?
a. The suffragist movement

b. 1920s

c. 1940s

d. 1960s

e. The women's liberation movement
Which of the following statements best describes why President Herbert Hoover rejected any federal intervention to help individuals during the Depression?
a. The federal government would run up huge deficits that would in the long run harm the economy.

b. Help to individuals was unconstitutional.

c. The business cycle would adjust itself over time.

d. "Prosperity was just around the corner" if people were patient.

e. Federal assistance would sap people's initiative and self-respect
The Bodies of Liberty, the first law code in the English colonies, was passed by the
a. Virginia House of Burgesses.

b. Massachusetts General Court.

c. First Continental Congress.

d. Proprietors of Georgia.

e. Maryland General Assembly.
John Maynard Keynes would agree with which of the following statements?
a. Cutting taxes is the way to stimulate the economy.

b. Cutting taxes and lowering interest rates will stimulate the economy.

c. Cutting taxes, lowering interest rates, and increasing government spending will stimulate the economy.

d. Increased government spending alone will stimulate the economy.

e. Only the natural forces of the free market can stimulate the economy.
"I hope that we will continue to be able to look upon art and artists as one of the factors which can be used to draw nations together. . . . We need emotional outlets in this country and the more artistic people we can develop the better it will be
a. Works Progress Administration

b. Civilian Conservation Corps

c. Federal Emergency Relief Administration

d. National Recovery Administration

e. National Youth Administration
All of the following are true about the National Recovery Administration EXCEPT
a. it recognized the right of labor to bargain collectively.

b. it established production quotas.

c. it encouraged construction of new factories.

d. it restricted business competition.

e. it prohibited unfair business practices
The least likely to benefit from Social Security when it was established were African Americans because
a. they did not have supporters in Congress.

b. employers skirted the law and did not report African Americans' earnings.

c. many lacked radios and newspapers and did not know they were eligible.

d. the law did not cover domestics and tenant farmers.

e. the earning level was higher than most African Americans made.
The Indian Reorganization Act was controversial for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
a. the act attempted to restore tribal government.

b. it granted citizenship to Native Americans.

c. the act effectively ended the policy of assimilation.

d. individuals would have to return to the tribes their land allotments.

e. money was authorized for economic development on reservations.
The cartoonist of this cartoon probably believed that
a. Roosevelt was unaware of how the nation was reacting to his court-packing scheme.

b. Roosevelt's court-packing scheme was a bad idea.

c. the Democrats were fast disassociating themselves from Roosevelt and his idea.

d. even the donkeys were running away from Roosevelt's idea.

e. Roosevelt's court-packing scheme was creating an uproar.
The New Deal did little to help African Americans because
a. Roosevelt was not concerned about the African American vote.

b. Roosevelt was unaware of the problems African Americans faced.

c. his closest advisors kept African American concerns from him in favor of white ethnics' issues.

d. moderates in Congress from the South and West blocked his legislative proposals to aid African Americans.

e. Roosevelt found it difficult to get around conservative Southern Democrats in Congress.
The Nye Commission determined that
a. a total embargo would interfere with the nation's recovery from the Depression.

b. the munitions industry and banking interests had propelled the United States into World War I.

c. embargoes lead to war.

d. Lend-Lease was a step down the road to war and should not be enacted.

e. only a policy of cash-and-carry for sales to belligerents would keep the nation out of war.
Which of the following novels is a compassionate and empathetic portrayal of people caught in the Depression?
a. The Age of Innocence

b. O Pioneers!

c. The Sound and the Fury

d. You Can't Go Home Again

e. Grapes of Wrath
Which of the following was not achieved during the New Deal?
a. Insuring bank deposits

b. Establishment of a minimum workweek and minimum wage

c. Funding farm mortgages

d. Funding home mortgages

e. Providing for medical insurance for the poor
The major goal of Huey Long was
a. the redistribution of wealth among Americans.

b. the establishment of old-age pensions.

c. the complete overhaul of the economic system.

d. the nationalization of railroads and public utilities.

e. the nationalization of banks
The New Deal changed U.S. society in all of the following ways EXCEPT
a. by providing old-age pensions for the elderly.

b. by providing income benefits for the unemployed.

c. by ensuring collective bargaining for labor unions.

d. by providing crop subsidies to farmers to protect against market fluctuations.

e. by offering loans to students for college.
In Korematsu v. United States, the Supreme Court upheld the right
a. of the government to take over the property of Japanese American detainees.

b. of the government to deport Japanese and Japanese American citizens for national security.

c. of the government to detain, relocate, and inter Japanese American citizens as a national security measure.

d. of Japanese Americans to qualify for conscientious objector status.

e. of Japanese Americans to enlist and fight in the armed forces.
Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about the U.S.'s economy in World War II?
a. Workers observed the no-strike policy and kept working as a patriotic duty.

b. Mexican workers entered the United States legally as part of the bracero program.

c. Industrial production grew rapidly in both the West and the South.

d. Women were actively recruited into the workforce.

e. Rural populations declined as people left farming for better-paying jobs in factories.
Franklin Roosevelt signed an Executive Order to end discrimination in wartime industries, because
a. production was falling behind for lack of workers.

b. it was the way to get around opponents.

c. the Black Cabinet persuaded him that he would lose African American voters if he did not do something.

d. A Philip Randolph threatened a huge march on Washington to protest discriminatory hiring practices.

e. employers refused to hire African Americans even though they lacked workers.
The experience of women who joined the labor force in World War I and in World II was the same in which of the following ways?
a. Women were accepted only grudgingly into the workforce.

b. Women were given shorter work schedules than men worked.

c. Women with children were not accepted into the work force.

d. Women were given light jobs that were considered "women's work."

e. When the war was over, women lost their jobs to returning servicemen.
A major problem that occurred with reconversion that Truman turned to his benefit in the election of 1948 was
a. voter frustration at the lack of consumer goods now that the war was over.

b. inflation and price controls.

c. high unemployment.

d. lack of Congressional approval for foreign aid.

e. the inability of the economy to absorb the shock of decreased government spending.
Which of the following was enacted as a direct result of the labor strikes in 1947?
a. Taft-Hartley Act

b. Wagner Act

c. National Labor Relations Board

d. Fair Labor Standards ACt

e. Voluntary ban on strikes by the AFL and CIO
Industrial development in Western Europe after World War II grew dramatically primarily as a result of which of the following?
a. Truman Doctrine

b. Marshall Plan

c. North Atlantic Treaty Organization

d. Point Four Program

e. Potsdam Conference
The Korean and Vietnam Wars were similar in that
a. the United States faced Communist China in both wars.

b. American support for the war shifted as the wars dragged on.

c. the United States entered both wars at the request of the United Nations.

d. the United States lost both wars.

e. Americans did not support U.S. presence in either war.
Americans' fear that Communists and fellow travelers were infiltrating the U.S. government was a direct consequence of which of the following?
a. Implication of former General George Marshall in the Communist plot

b. Blackballing of writers and actors by Hollywood movie studios

c. Evidence of Communists in the State Department

d. The report of the Tydings Senate subcommittee on Foreign Relations

e. Allegations of Senator Joseph McCarthy
Which of the following statements is NOT true about Puerto Ricans on the mainland in the 1950s and early 1960s?
a. Many Puerto Ricans did not accept the help offered by federal, state, and local agencies.

b. Puerto Ricans who spoke no English found it difficult to adapt.

c. Even though Puerto Ricans were American citizens, mainland politicians did not court their votes.

d. Puerto Ricans were surprised by the racism they encountered because many had African ancestors.

e. Unemployment among Puerto Ricans was higher than it was among non-Latino white workers.
All of the following fueled the growth of suburbs EXCEPT
a. the baby boom.

b. new techniques for mass producing and building homes.

c. construction of new highways.

d. the decay of cities.

e. development of mass transit
The leading proponent of abstract expressionism was
a. Andy Warhol.

b. Jackson Pollock.

c. Andrew Wyeth.

d. Romare Bearden.

e. Jasper Johns.
The Beat poets took some of their inspiration from which of the following?
a. Counterculture

b. Jazz

c. Rhythm and blues

d. Techno music

e. Rock 'n roll
Which of the following began the drive to end segregation in the South?
a. The March on Washington, DC

b. Freedom Summer

c. Birmingham marches

d. The Montgomery Bus Boycott

e. The march from Selma to Montgomery
A direct consequence of the Russian launching of Sputnik was
a. the adoption of the "duck and cover" program in schools.

b. a new emphasis on science teaching.

c. a new emphasis on academic achievement and quality education.

d. the establishment of Head Start.

e. adoption of a national program of academic testing in elementary and high school.
"It was TV more than anything else that turned the tide."
This quotation was probably said about the election of
a. 1948.

b. 1960.

c. 1968.

d. 1980.

e. 1992.
The Bay of Pigs fiasco led to all of the following EXCEPT
a. criticism of President Kennedy for not supporting the invaders with air support.

b. criticism of President Kennedy for agreeing to the plan.

c. charges of Yankee interference from other Latin American nations.

d. closer relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union.

e. removal of Kennedy's staff from decisions involving the Central Intelligence Agency.
The Feminine Mystique was significant because it
a. gave younger women a glimpse into their mothers' lives.

b. gave voice to middle-class women's discontent with their lives.

c. became the authority on the women's liberation movement.

d. recorded oral histories of working-class women.

e. provided a blueprint for radicalizing the women's movement.
The election of 1964 was significant, because voters
a. repudiated the war in Vietnam.

b. gave Johnson a mandate for the Great Society.

c. rejected Goldwater's call for less spending on national defense.

d. showed a weariness with the civil rights struggle.

e. showed little interest in the election.
A direct consequence of the Immigration Act of 1965 was
a. a tightening of national immigration quotas.

b. a decrease in the number of immigrants from Africa.

c. ended the preferential system for immigrants with relatives already in the United States.

d. a sharp rise in the number of immigrants from Asia and Latin America.

e. an amnesty period for immigrants in the United States illegally.
"Black Power recognizes—it must recognize—the ethnic basis of American politics as well as the power-oriented nature of American politics. Black Power therefore calls for black people to consolidate behind their own, so that they can bargain fro
a. Ralph Ellison.

b. James Baldwin.

c. Malcolm X.

d. Stokely Carmichael.

e. Ralph Abernathy.
What pulled the plug on President Johnson's Great Society?
a. The electorate

b. The disaffection of African American leaders

c. The Vietnam War

d. Johnson's own inability to work with Congress

e. Johnson's inarticulateness
The person most likely to join the counterculture was a
a. white soldier from the working class, age 18–22.

b. middle-class white person of college age.

c. middle-class African American of college age.

d. working-class African American, age 18–22.

e. working-class, white American, age 18–22
All of the following were demands of the American Indian Movement EXCEPT
a. a review of broken treaties.

b. an investigation of the activities of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

c. greater control over tribal affairs.

d. greater economic opportunities on reservations.

e. the right to vote.
Richard Nixon owed his 1968 election primarily to which of the following?
a. The good showing that George Wallace had in traditionally Democratic states

b. Nixon's recognition of the presence of a large group of disaffected white middle-class Americans

c. President Johnson's late withdrawal from the campaign

d. Hubert Humphrey's identification with Johnson's domestic policies

e. The Vietnam War
Which of the following was an important part of Nixon's plan to attract white Southern voters into the Republican Party?
a. Opposition to voting rights

b. Opposition to school desegregation through busing

c. The appointment of a Southerner to his Cabinet

d. Pork barrel spending in Southern districts

e. Repeated campaign visits to the South on behalf of Republican candidates

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