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Nonvoluntary Euthanasia
Nonvoluntary euthanasia occurs without the fully-informed consent and fully-informed request of a decisionally-competent adult patient or that of their surrogate (proxy).An example of this might be if a "patient" has decisional capacity but is not told they will be euthanized; or, if a patient is not conscious or lacks decisional-capacity and their surrogate is not told the patient will be euthanized.

Source:Wikimedia Foundation
Involuntary Euthanasia
Involuntary euthanasia occurs over the objection of a patient or their surrogate (proxy). An example of this might be if a patient with decisional capacity (or their surrogate) is told what will happen. The patient (or surrogate) refuses yet the patient is euthanized anyway. This is generally considered murder. If a patient slated for euthanasia changes his or her mind at the last minute, the doctor is categorically required by law to honor that wish. In most countries removing or denying treatment without the clear instructions of the patient is usually seen as murder.

Source:Wikimedia Foundation
Terminal Sedation
Terminal sedation is a combination of medically inducing a deep sleep and stopping other treatment, with the exception of medication for symptom control (such as analgesia). It is considered to be euthanasia by some, but under current law and medical practice it is considered a form of palliative care.

Source:Wikimedia Foundation
Mercy Killing and Animal Euthanasia
Mercy Killing is a term used for some cases of euthanasia. Typically it refers to euthanasia by a someone other than a doctor, such as a parent, who perceives the individual to be suffering. In some cases the individual cannot consent. In some cases the individual can consent but is not asked or refuses. Lastly, in some cases the individual consents, and it may even be them who initiates the discussion. Animal Euthanasia is also considered mercy killing.

Source: Wikimedia Foundation
Arguments Against Euthanasia
1. Euthanasia would not only be for people who are "terminally ill"
2. Euthanasia can become a means of health care cost containment
3. Euthanasia will become non-voluntary
4. Euthanasia is a rejection of the importance and value of human life

Problems with arguments against Euthanasia:
1. Euthanasia would not only be for people who are "terminally ill."
The main problem is that the definition of "terminal" is debated

2. Euthanasia can become a means of health care cost containment
. Legalized euthanasia raises the potential for a profoundly dangerous situation in which doctors could find themselves far better off financially if a seriously ill or disabled person "chooses" to die rather than receive long-term care.

3. Euthanasia will only be voluntary
If the choice of euthanasia is considered as good as a decision to receive care, many people will feel guilty for not choosing death. Financial considerations, added to the concern about "being a burden," could serve as powerful forces that would lead a person to "choose" euthanasia or assisted suicide.

4. Euthanasia is a rejection of the importance and value of human life.
With euthanasia no one's life is being saved - life is only taken.

History has taught us the dangers of euthanasia and that is why there are only two countries in the world today where it is legal. That is why almost all societies - even non-religious ones - for thousands of years have made euthanasia a crime.

Reasons for Euthanasia
1. Unbearable pain
2. Right to commit suicide
3. People should not be forced to stay alive

1. Unbearable pain as the reason for euthanasia
People in severe pain are drugged into a no-pain state but they need to be euthanasiaed from such a state because it is not dignified.

2. Demanding a "right to commit suicide"
People think that it is their right to take their own life.

Euthanasia law deals with whether or not it is legal for someone else to help them do it.

3. Should people be forced to stay alive?
Insistence, against the patient's wishes, that death be postponed by every means available is contrary to medical law and practice. It would also be cruel and inhumane. There comes a time when continued attempts to cure are not compassionate, wise, or medically sound.

Where are euthanasia and assisted suicide legal?
Oregon, the Netherlands and Belgium are the only jurisdictions in the world where laws specifically permit euthanasia or assisted suicide. Oregon permits assisted suicide. The Netherlands and Belgium permit both euthanasia and assisted suicide.

In 1995 Australia’s Northern Territory approved a euthanasia bill. It went into effect in 1996 but was overturned by the Australian Parliament in 1997.

In 1997, Colombia’s Supreme Court ruled that penalties for mercy killing should be removed. However the ruling does not go into effect until guidelines, still to be drafted, are approved by the Colombian Congress.


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