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Who were the two realists?
John Jay and Alexander Hamilton
Who were the idealists?
Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine
Who was first president to recognize that a balance of power was necessary?
Theodore Roosevelt (Realist), keen proponent of a more robust American approach to world affairs. He intervened in Haiti
Helped Panama secede from Colombia, paving way for Panama Canal.
1905, invited reps from Japan and Russia to sign what peace treaty?
The Treaty of Portsmouth
Woodrow Wilson
Idealist, outbreak of WWI wanted to be neutral. Devoted to signing the Versailles Treaty and designing the League of Nations. "fourteen Point Principles"
What did 14 points call for?
open diplomacy, self-determination, general disarmament, abandonment of the balande of power principle and in favor of collective security.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Responsible for UN.
Signed X
The Foreign Affairs journal author named George Kennan. Put forward the idea that US should pursue a patient, but firm, long-term policy of containment of Soviet power.
July 1947, Congress passed the National Security Act.
provided for a single Department of Defense to replace the three independent services and established the Joint Chiegs of Staff. Created also the National Secutiry Council to advise the President, and set up the CIA to gather info around the world.
Truman created...
NATO, and sent troops to fight in the Koran War in 1950.
author of Defense Policy Guidelines
Paul Wolfowitz, argued that the US should do everything possible to maintain its sole supoerpower status and prevent the emergence of a rival regional or global power.
foreign policy challenges to clinton?
economic breakdown of Russia, conflict in Balkans, breakdown of law and order in Haiti, rising tension in the middle east.
Tom Ridge
First secretary of homeland security
Michael Chertoff
Federal judhe, didnt have experience in terrorist things, didnt do well with Katrina, and director of FEMA lost his job, people asking why Chertoff did not.
What Republican made Bush change his ways ?
Areland Spector, he decides who goes into Supreme Court Justice Vacancies.
things to note for the creation of the department
it involved 22 agencies, and 170,000 people. Tom Ridge resigned
Berney Kerik
considered for position as the Secretary of Homeland Security but he had a mistress, and was rumored to be involved with organized crime. So he was damanged goods.
Weighes 60 tons, can only be carried by big ass planes.
the Paladin
What the crusader was supposed to replace. It could shoot longer, faster, and more shots at a single time. We saw in the Persian Gulf war that the Iraqis had stronger power.
Tom White
Thought we need mobile artillery. The congressmen backed him. If you have infantry on the ground, you need to have artillery becaue of possible severe weather conditions. He was former general and was put in secretary of defense position. it was easy to put him out because he had gone behind his bosses' back and had Enron on his resume.
What 2 states would get a bunch of job openings if we accepted the Crusader?
OK and Minnesota. So they were saying we really needed it.
Succeeded in opposing the Crusader. He won by making a different policy argument, having the President on his side, and people who were upset with this were from OK and MN and didnt have a lot of electoral votes.
Contractors for United Defense
In support of the Crusader.
Cheif of Staff of Army, proponent of the Crusader.
Proponent's arguments for the Crusader?
killing a small program, which is on time and on budget is much easier than killing more expensive programs with greather problems, like the V-22.
The Paladin is 40 years old.
Relying on old technology puts American troops at risk.
Studies show Crusader enhances the joint force and rduces American casualities by 30 percent.
National Security Council
comprises the President's main external relations advisers including the VP, Secretaries of Stae and Defense, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of STaff, the director of the COA, and the national security advisor. Provide the stream of briefing papers for the President.
State Department
is the lead executive agency for the conduct of Us doplomacy, a mission based on the role of the Secretary of State as the President's principle foreign policy adviser. Has the primary role in:
leadingand coordinating US representation abroad, conducting negotiations and concluding agreements and treaties, managing the international affairs budget, and coordinating and supporting international activities of other US agencies.
Appropriate the budget, can regulate trade and foreign trade and commerce, can declare war (last one WWII), can approve treaties, mostly we think of them in that they legislate, or pass the laws.
War Powers Resolution (1973)
attempt to reclaim powers after Vietnam War, it tried to deal the phenomenon of presidential wars, making presidents ask congress to go to war. Basically it says that the President can do whatever he wants for 48 hours and they take a vote. Opponents feel this costs American lives.
Executive Agreements
are not approved by the senate, used when senate wont agree on a treaty, it is more like a handshake and not legally binding.
Legal contract written and signed, bounding, registered with the UN
1978, SALT treaty
Approved by Senate, but not by congress. Carter told the Russian leader that they would both limit nuclear weapons without a binding contract. Reagan was under no legal binding to continue.
1990s and Congress
Legislated that Us should overthrow the Iranian Regime. Has enormous amount of Potential Power.
1993, who favored CTBT?
Clinton and his Russian counterpart Yelsim.
• It keeps people from advancing in the nuclear race.
• If you don’t test nuclear arms, they are less likely to ever be used.
• You wont rely on something you haven’t tested.
• If you ban testing you are slowing the process down.
• Is it popular to be for nuclear weapons? No, the international community will not be as open to you.
Jesse Helms
played a large role in denying it. He kept it bottled up, and let democrats think they got it. He wanted the ABM treaty and Kyoto to be re-discussed so they were playing legislative chicken. First major treaty to be rejected since the Treaty of Versailles.
players of the CTBT?
Jon Biden (supporter) and Daschle (supporter)
President of Thailand
went to the U.N. meeting and the military went and said they support the king and that they don’t need him anymore.

• Corruption in his regime, he was a billionaire turned politician.
• A lot of ties with him aren’t happy because he was a bit of a bully.
• Biggest downfall was he snubbed the king.
• They have a democratic monarchy. The king is head of state, and you have the prime minister who runs on a day to day basis.
• They were having a 60th anniversary, and it was perceived that the prime minister was usurping the people coming in before the king did. He is one-upping the king, and taking his role.
• Islamic insurgency in some areas. The top general in the army favored diplomacy. He is really close to the king.
• He cites key business elites met at the US at the department of defense for talks about Venezuela. So he was pissed.
• He is certain that it was a series of planned meetings to get him out.
President of Iran
saying who is the US to tell the world how to think and act, on the Security Council where most country problems go, 5 countries havea veto, they have more power wit hthe veto with any other normal members. He does not think this is fair, neither does Kapan.
Needed 17.9 billion dollars. People in Thailand were inflating money.
when IMF loans you money, what happens?
They pressure you, they said the country needs to cut spending, stop substatizes, and wanted to see their books to see how the country was spending its money.
Kept wanting to put an anti-abortion clause in the IMF reforms. Republicans had to convince him to take it out or Clinton would veto it.
Secretary of IMF
Rubin. Said he would make talks in the IMF more transparent.
Chuck Hagel
senator R-Neb. Supported IMF funding and crafted a compromise to provide the full funding requested by the Clinton adminstration with limited conditions
Robert Rubin
Seccretary of Treasury, spokesperson for IMF funding without conditions.
CIA New National Intelligence Estimate
formal statement of thei ntelligence communities thinking on some issue. Leaks of this have generated interest in this becaue th eestimate says that the war in Iraq has made us less, not more safe. What is the logic behind that? we have made more people angry. We have generated more violence than before.
use money and numbers. You have to be well organized (Greeks and Jews)
Bush Administration relyed on what think tanks?
The Heritage Foundation, The American Enterprise Institute, and other pro-Rebublican think thanks when it took office in Jan. 2001.
Liberal Think Tanks
The Brookings Institute, Woodrow Wilson Center
The Council on Foreign Relations is non-partisan and regards itself as the most prestigious and influential think tank.
American Israeli Public Affairs Committee. A lobbyist for Israel, anytime a question of Israel comes up they say something about it.
United Fruit
Owned 70% of land that grows fruit, and the telephone company, and R.R. both of which the United Fruist had established. Pretty much the country is going to do what needs to be done according to that company.
John Foster Dellis
Partner with Sulliver and Cromwell, and they dealt with United Fruit. They were getting pressure from Political people so they appealed to the secretary of state saying the Gov. there is pushing us around.
Think Tank Characteristics
group of experts
privately funded research entity
council on foreign relations
American Enterprise institute
have press conferences, write books
publicize their results
if you were a member, you got really good trade deals. WTO is successor to the GATT.
you are a major player in World economy.
Two provisions of WTO
1. has own rules for how it governs trade.
2. the people you trade with on a large basis have to agree to let you go.
GM, Ford, Chrystler
Want to sell to Chinese, market is 1.3 billion people. Economy is growing 10% a year, people in China want better food and housing.
Issues with China?
Sweat Shops, Environment (Benzing Spill that went into Russian Rivers), Tibetan Buddhists, dont like them.
thought promoting trade would break down communism.
Georgia & Russia
arrested four Russians and charged them with espionage. Shut down roads, R.R.'s, air service, etc.
force when necessary, cooperation when necessary
You do not want to impose your views but you support cooperation.
You are opposing internationalism.
you like to push around but dont like cooperation. Do things my way or you are wrong is the logic here.
70% fit into which category?
Hard-liners, Isolationist, accommodationist, or internationlist?
internationalist and accommodationist. Some hard-liners are isolationist. The public is reaonsably distributed across all 4 cells. none has less than 20% of public opinion.
Federation of American Sciences. Against Bush Administration. Anything that involves the science field, they are goingto want to have a voice on.
Institute for policy Studies
Less hegemonic role in the world and be more cooperative, find other ways to get involved with other countries.
Kato Institute
Think tank identified with the Libertarian Party, Social liverties as free as possible from the government.
Paul Wolfowitz
chairman of World Bank

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