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Fundamentals of dental practice


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Types of specialties
Dental public health
oral/maxiofacial path
oral/maxiofacial radiology
pediatric dentistry
How many dental specialties are there?
ADA speciality standards
1. must have certifying baord and complete accredited education program
2. be recoginzed by ADA
3. must be carried on by dentist as specialist limited exclusively to specialty
latest recognized dental specialty
dental radiology
takes care of problems dealing with root tissue of tooth and pulp. where tissue is irritated to point of irreversibilty
replace natural tooth with artifical

1.fixed 2. removable
oral path
diagnosis of diseases of head and neck
supporting structures of teeth, gingiva, and bone
number one cause of dental malpractice
failure to see perio disease
4 main parts of dental business
inhabited yucatan and hondaras. maya nation began in 2500 BC

developed written language, math, calender, crop breeding, make pyramids
Why did mayas do dentistry/
not for maintance or improvement but for ritual or religious reasons. blackedned teeth, filed teeth YUCK!
earliest example of endosseous implants
600 AD wth, shell implants
Where did aztecs settle?
Mexico City
Who studied mouth and treatment with herbs and botanicals?
Fray Bernardino de Sahagun
he was an aztec
practiced tooth mutuliation by filing teeth and inlaying with stone. thought dental caries were worms from hot chiles.
How did aztecs fill teeth?
with powder of snail shell, sea salt, and herbs.
How did aztecs treat toothache?
grind up worm, mix with turpentine and paint mixture on cheek. incise ginginval area and place herb there
What did aztecs believe about cleft lip?
children of full moon would have cleft lip
How did incas extract teeth?
loosened by using caustic resin around tooth and knocked out with sharp blow from a stick.
How did Incas mutilate teeth?
by filing inlaying of gold, hammering gold into gingivolabial surface
when did physicians begin to treat disease with drugs and surgery?
1792-1750 BC
during Babylon empire
When were codes of laws written for physicans?
1792-1750 BC

during babylon period
How long was myth believed that dental caries were caused by a tooth worm?
until 18th century AD
Where did phoencians live?
Describe Etruscans prostheses
gold bands that wre soldered into rings instead of gold wires used by Phonecians and Egyptians of same time
several important achievements during Renaissance
1. rediscovery of thought and art from romans and greek

2. rebirth of scientific inquiry. freed scince from theology and superstition

3. invention of printing and engraving

4. interest in anatomy was basis for medical progress in 15th and 16th century
Who believed that a tooth with an underdevelpoed root could be transplanted into another's mouth?
John Hunter
Why did teeth transplant fail?
bc people were getting syphilis
Who invented individual porcelain teeth caled terrometallic incorruptibles?
guiseppangelo Fonzi

he put platinum pin in back of each tooth and put gold/silver soldered to back of teeth
Crawcour brothers
crude amalgaum for teeth called royal mineral succedaneum which was a mix of silver and mercury. Problem was they placed filling with removing caries or tooth prep. Brothers fled US.
Health problems with Crawcour brothers amalgum?
Mercry toxicity
Society of Surgeon Dentists of City and state of New york
Mission was to promote respect of profession and to end quackery. Had to sign pledge to NEVER use amalgam
first national organization of dentists
American Society of Dental Surgeions in 1840. Developed by Horace Hayden and Chapin Harris
When was amalgam rescinded?
1850 by ASDS
When and Who improved amalgam?
IN 1855 improved amalgam composed of 4 parts silver and 4 parts tin introduced by Dr. Elisha Townsend of Philly
Gutta perche
material used for temp fillings in 1850. made from sapodilia exudate of trees, mixed with lime and quartz and rubber
Horace Hayden
in baltimore wrote artice in medical journals. he was granted a license to practice dentistry in Maryland. ASDS prez. prez of Baltimore college of Dentistry
First prez of ASDS
Horace Hayder
Chapin Harris
horace harpers student in Baltimore.

Wrote the dental art: a practice treatise on dental surgery.

Founded Amerian Journal of Dental Sciene

Dean of Baltimore College of Dentistry

*important in dental education, organization, and lit.
American Journal of dental science
1839. first dental journal in the world! Created by Chapin Harris. ASDS took ownership of the journal in 1841
first dental college in the world
Baltimore College of Dental Surgery in 1840 by Hayden and Harris.

5 kids in first class. It was a 2 year program. 2 students graduated first class
Who discovered Nitrous Oxide?
1773 by Joseph Priestly buy research lost in fire
first dentist to use nitrous oxide on patient
Horace Wells
in 1844
Who started working with Ether?
Will Morton in 1846. Morton was pals with Wells and Wells told him about NO. Morton began using ether and called it Letheon
Who exposed Mortons Letheon gas as sulfuric ether?
Dr. John Flag
4 men that staked claim on discovering anesthesia
Horace Wells
Will Morton
Charles Jackson
Crawford Long
Charles Jackson
physicain and chemist
he identifed ethers anesthetic properties
When was chloroform introduced?
1847. Wells experimented with it and become addicted
Who was recognized by ADA and AMA as introducer of anesthesia?
Wells in 1864.
What did soldiers need to bite off powder cartridge?
6 opposing maxilllary and mandibular front teeth.
To avoid the draft men self mutulitated to knock teeth out
Nelson Good year
discovered how to change flexible rubber into hard rubber called vucanite. This became denture base material
Who had patent on rubber dentures?
Dr. John Cummings. called Vulcanite denture. he sold patent to goodyear dental vucanite so dentists had to pay. in 1881 patent expirted after a dentist murdered the treasurer
primary denture used untill WWII
Vulcanite denture made of rubber. stopped due to rubber shortage then acrylic resin became dentaure base
when was first dental drill invented in US?
First electric drill inventor and year
George Green in 1868
First American female dentist
Emeline Roberts Jones
First Woman to receive dental degree
1865. Lucy Beaman Hobbs. She fell in love with pt
Post civel war dental schools
1. Baltimore
2. Ohio
3. Pennsylvania
first dental school to be affiliated with university
Southern Dental Association
formed by confererate dentists after the civil war
who merged to form National Dental Association?
Southern Dental Association and American Dental association in 1897
When did NDA change name back to ADA?
In 1922
Willoughby miller, DDS
DDS degree from Penn

Professor of OP dentistry

Published MO of human mouth

Started preventive dentistry and taught oral health to public
Who wrote Microorganisms of the Human Mouth
1890 by Willoughby Miller. It said that carbs in mouth were fermented by bacteria to cause acids and decalcification
Who discovered x rays?
Wilhelm Roentgen in 1893
Who took 1st dental exray
Otto Walkhoff
first dentist with electricty in dental office
Who discovered dangers of Xray
Important contributions by Edmund Kells
Female assistant
dental engine
suction pump for fluid asp.
one handed instruments
fire extinguisher
auto jack
elevator starter
What did Dr. Mckay discover?
1909 found that 88% of kides had stain on teeth. those with stain had fewer cavities.
number of dental specialties
When did ortho emerge as seperate specialty?
1930 by Dr. Angel. In 1900-01 started Angle school of ortho and american society of ortho
When did oral surgery become specalty?
in 1946 but term oral surgeoun was used in 1869
When did oral path become specialty?
Professional specialties in order of dates
oral surgery
oral path
dental pub health
oral radiology
Who developed first air driven handpeice?
SS White company in 1957. In 70s fiber optic components were added to handpiece to provide light
When did dentist start to sit down and practice dentistry?
Who introduced composite filled resins?
Dr. Buonocore in 1967
When was first electric toothbrush develped?
Who and when developed osseointegration of dental implants?
prof. per-ingvar branemark in 1980s
When did FDA approve YAG to treat dentin and tooth decay?
First african american with dental degree
robert tanner freeman. graduated from Harvard
first african american woman to graduate with dental degree
Ida gray from michigan
When was Howard U founded in DC?
1881 it is the 5th oldest school
When was Meharry College founded?
in 1886 in Nashville to train dentists and MD
Father of MODERN dentestry
GV Black. gave dentistry scientific foundation. only had elementary ed. Missouri college gave black a honorary DDS degree and he taught there. He later became physician. He helped wrine Il dental practice Act. He bcome dean of Northwestern dental school
Who wrote dental anatomy and operative dentistry?
Black standarized operative dentistry
2 MAJOR contributions of Black
1. developed standard calssificaation of caries

2. Extension for prevention
Dr. Branwell Welch
Creamed Dr. Welches unfermented wine
Dr semple
patent for chewing gum to clean teeth
Dr. William james morrison invention
COtton candy ada fairy floss
Dr. George franklin grant
African american dentist created golf tee
when was toothpaste develped?
1800 ingrediants were soap and chald
When did colgate mass produce toothpasts?
1873 in jar
When was toothpaste put in collaspable tube?
in 1892 by Dr Sheffield
When and who added Fl to toothpast?
Crest added Fl in 1955
Who invented modern dental floss?
Dr. Levi Spear in 1815
Who produced commercial floss for at home use?
Codman and Shurtleft Co. in 1882
Who got patent for flosss?
Johnson and Johnson in 1898
Dr. Bass
durring WWII made nylon floss instead of silk
When was local anestics first used?
Who used Cocain to anesthetize eye?
Karl koller
Who showed that an injection in V3 could cause local anestic?
William Halstead he was a surgeon. Problem is that soughing and additiveness of cocaine
who develped novacain?
German Chemist named Albert Einhorn in 1905
properties of novaocaine
low toxicity
readily absorbed
onset wi minutes
When was lidocain introduced in dentistry and medicine?
properties of lidocaine
dissuses readily through tissue and nerve

rapid onset of analgesia
Who started delivering anesthetic drugs in cartridges?
Dr. Harvey cook. Like a gun
When were disposable needles first used?
During WWII in 1959
Dr. Fones
started first dental hygene class and term dental hygeinist. FATHER OF DENTAL HYGEINE
Dr. Fred McKay
CO dentist found relationship between water supply and brown mottling on kids teeth. asked black to help him study problem
In past 100 years what has helped prevent dental disease?
stress dental care
proper diets
improve dental hygeine
dental sealants
When did ADA adopt officail emblem of dentistry?
Dental Insignia in 1965
What does central serpent around rod in dental insignia represent?
Asclepius. Greek God of Medicine
When does delta (triangle) the letter O that form outer part of ADA emblem mean?
Odont for tooth
on dental insignia what does leaves and berries represent?
32 leaves for perm teeth and 20 berries for deciduous teeth
Who opened first dental office in Savanna Choctaw NAtion?
Dr. Wright
When did indian territory assocaition form?
1n 1903 with 29 dentists
What formed ODA? When?
in 1907 OK territoral Dental and Indian Territory Assocaitions merged
When did OUCOD open?
first class 1972 but building opened in 1976. class size 72
First dentist that lived during reign of pharaoh Zoser
Greek/ Roman god of healing
Asclepius had snake symbolm still used
father of medicine
Hippocrates taught rational approach to medicine. thought dental prblems arose from weakness
dental forcepes
What were romans skilled in?
restoring and replacing teeth and bridgework. Used skills from Greeks and Etruscans
Who used dentrifices and toothpicks to clean teeth/
famous roman physican that though deterioration caused disease

for toothaches prescribed

hotwater, fill cavity with lead, made techniques to striaghten teeth
Greatest physicain since hippocrates
Who recoginzed that toothache was caused by pulpities and inflam of radicular portion
Patron Saint of Dentist
3 reasons skinner made history
1. established first in hospital dental clinic

2. first dental clinic for indigent America

3. wrote first book on dentistry published in america in 1801. "Treatise on Human Teeth"
Father of American Dental Lit
RC Skinner
george washington last tooth left
Lower L bicuspid
Who made dentures for George Washington?
John Greenwood. used gold, hippo, elephant ivory, and human teeth. NOT WOOD!
Who established dental chair w/ ajustable head riest with leather and insturment holder?
Josiah Flagg
Americas first native born dentist
Josiah Flagg. he offered prosthetics to ortho

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