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Bio Vocab for Final


undefined, object
copy deck
reproductive system
the system for the means of continuing the species
one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to release and store energy; like a battery
gene mutation
mutation where the nucleotide sequence of genetic material of an organism is changed
f2 generation
the offspring from crosses among individuals in the f1 generation
f1 generation
the fist offspring from a cross of two varieties in the parental generation
disorder in which some of the bodys own cells lose the ability to control growth and overproduce...a mass production of cells
electrical energy
the work which must be done against the Coulomb force to rearrange charges from infinite separation to this configuration, energy from electricity
one part of a chromosome is on another
fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes during mitosis
lymphatic and immune system
fights off disease
the process of decoding a mRNA message into to a poly-peptide chain or chain of amino acids that form a protein...translating the mRNA
the plants primary pigment which absorbs light
respiratory system
• Breathing rate increases during exercise due to the need for oxygen, which is used to convert glucose into ATP
Prophase 2
meosis 1 results in two haploid (n) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell, and each of the cells chromosomes has 2 chromatids, so there are 4 chromatids per cell
digestive system
• Equivalent to the cell membranes of monerans and protists, phagocytosis of amoeba, digestive tract of cnidarians and flatworms, digestive tract of insects, vertebrae's etc.
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
steps of genetic engineering
dna extraction, cutting dna, separating dna, reading te sequence, cutting and pasting, making copies
anaerobic respiration
respiration that does not require oxygen
immune response
a series of specific defenses that attack the particular disease causing agent
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, programs for body traits and functions
sound energy
the energy generated from sound (soundwaves)
shaded square
represent male who is homozygous for the recessive trait; has the trait
Start codon
AUG or met, it is ATG in dna
muscular system
• Organs included are muscles tendons muscles in organs
half shaded
the DNA of eukaryotic genes that contain sequences of nucleotides that are not involved in the coding of proteins
aerobic respiration
respiration that requires oxygen
S phase
synthesis stage, where protein synthesis and dna replication take place
holes in the bottom of the leaf where gas exchange takes place
muscular system
the system that deals with the means of movement
transfer RNA, it transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it is specified by coded messages in the mRNA
one of the two identitcal sister parts of a duplicated chromosome
respiratory system
• Is equivalent to the cells membranes of protists, a plant leaf stoma, the gills of a fish etc.
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan, can cause infection , treated by antiobiotics
an injection of a weakened form of a pathogen to produce immunity
dna fingerprinting
analysis of sections of dna that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals..the usage of dna for identification
respiratory system
• Organs are lungs, nasal passages, trachea and bronchi
the study of heredity
a form of treatment for cancer where parts of the body with cancerous tumors are exposed to high energy radiaton which disrupts cell division, and can often destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to normal cells
nervous system
• Organs include the brain, spinal cord and nerves
Anaphase 2
the sister chromatids or paired chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of each cell
the substance that triggers an immune response
particle made up of nucleic acid, protein and in some case lipids that can only replicate by infecting living cells
part of eurkaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides, nuclear division, occurs in 4 stages, results starts with 1 diploid cell result is two diploid cells
genotype of a female with normal vision
digestive system
• Accessory organs which provide digestive enzymes and in the case of the live processes some of the food absorbed: salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the gentic information that is passed from one generation to the next
homologous chromosome
a chromosome hat has a corresponding chromosome from one of the other parents; a set of chromosomes are homologous if each chromosome from the male parent correspond with the chromosomes from the female parent
the removal of one nucleotide of DNA
excretory system
the system of fluid waste removal
horizontal line between male and female
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
digestive system
• Includes the mouth salivary glands esophagus stomach and small and large intestines
fossil fuel
hydrocarbons (an organic compound consisting entirely or hydrogen and carbon found within the top layer of the earths crust) derived from the living matter of a previous geologic time which is used for fuel...oil, natural gas or coal
three nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
integumentary system
• Organs include skin and sweat glands
secondary consumer
fox eating a bunny that ate grass, carnivore, lions and bears
both alleles are expressed, RR1= red and white
process by which the number of chromosmes is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell, cell division in two diploid cells, results in 4 different haploid cells, each of which are gametes...produces sex cells
integumentary system
responsible for production of vitamin D
infectious disease
a disease cased by an infection of some sort
digestive system
the system for breakdown and absorption of nutrients
half shaded
carrier of gene
Genetic code
the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or RNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells. Specifically, the code defines a mapping between tri-nucleotide sequences called codons, and amino acids; every triplet of nucleotides in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid
Cytokenesis in animal cells
a ring of microfiliments graduall contracts inward like a drawstring and pinches the cell into two. In most animal cells the cell membrane is drawn inward until the cytoplasm is pinched into two nearly equal parts, each part containing its own nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles...cleavage furrow divides cells
digestive system
• Through mechanical digestion in the mouth and stomach the food gets broken into small pieces but the actual organic molecules remain the same
equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight energy C6H12O6 + 6O2
cardiovascular system
the delivery system
displaying only one form of a particular trait in offspring
a consumer Animals who eat plants are called... Example is a deer who just eats plants...
the DNA sequences that code for proteins...they are "expressed" in protein synthesis
process by which cells release oxygen in the absence of oxygen
anaphase 1
the fibers pull the homologous chromosomes toward opposite ends of the cell
point mutation
a mutation in just the DNA sequence such a substitution, insertion or deletion (Borley, Moorley, Orley)
digestive system
• Through chemical digestion( the proteins start in the stomach just about everything is in the small intestine) the organic molecules are broken down from polymers to monomers
excretory system
• Equivalent to the cell membranes of monerans and protists, the nephridia of annelids and the green glands of arthropods
Telophase and Cytokenesis 2
results in four haploid daughter cells, each are genetically different, with two chromatids per each of the 4 daughter cells. They are sex cells, each with only two chromosomes each
thermal energy
energy of heat; the energy relating to temperature and heat-as temperature increases/decreases energy does so as well, the energy associated with the microscopical random motion of particles constituting the media.
organism that obtain energy from the food it consumes
sticky ends
the ends on a plasmid or piece of dna at which the gene attaches to
cardiovascular system
• The blood carriers many essential materials through the body such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones etc.
connects bone to bone
digestive system
• These monomers are now able to be absorbed in the small intestine for delivery by the blood stream, the water is absorbed by the large intestine
a single stranded long chain of nucleotides (each of which is made up of a 5-carbon sugar [pentose], a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base [A,U,C,G]) ribonucleic acid...a disposable or working copy of a segment of DNA or of a single gene. Has many functions, main one is protiein systhesis. Sugar is ribose
digestive system
• Takes food and breaks it down into nutrients the body needs
incomplete dominance
blending, recessive alleles slightly masks he dominant expression, rr1=pink
a version of a gene ie hair color is gene, allele is blonde or brunette; an alternate form of a gene, a version of a gene
endocrine system
is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extra cellular signaling molecules known as hormones. The system is instrumental in regulating metabolism, growth, development and puberty, tissue function, and also plays a part in determining mood.[1]
organelle found in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
where a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to ABC to CBA
proteins that recognize and bind to antigens who then fight disease
refers to an individual with two different alleles for a trait
integumentary system
regulation of body temperature through blood flow
Stop codon
signals the stop of translation, they are UAG,UAA, or UGA
primary consumer
something that eats a produceran herbivore(vegetarian)....such as a bunny eating grass
protein synthesis
The transcription of mRNA from DNA which in turn leads to protein synthesis...the whole sysnthesis includes transcription and translation...the formation of proteins
non disjunction
is the failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during cell division. This could arise from a failure of homologous chromosomes to separate in meiosis I, or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during meiosis II or mitosis. The result of this error is a cell with an imbalance of chromosomes. Examples are Down syndrome, Triple-X syndrome, Klinefelter's Syndrome, Turner's Syndrome
animal that carries pathogens from person to person; truck, carries pathogens or viruses from organisms to other organisms or materials around a cell
excretory system
• Organs are the kidney bladder and urethra
skeletal system
• Produces red blood cells
passive immunity
when the bod is temporarily protected from the disease when the antiobodies produced by other animals against a pathogen are injected into the bloodstream
the function of the immune system is to fight infection through the production of cells that inactivate foreign substances and cells-the process is...
alcoholic fermentation
fermentation to form ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide, used by yeast and other lactic organism is what causes the bubbles in a slice of bread. Pyruvic acid+NADHalcohol+co2+NAD+
disease causing agent
skeletal system
Supports the body
nervous system
• Controls body movement, peristalsis, and digestion of food, interpretation of sensory input, heartbeat, breathing etc
the first and longest phase of mitosis during which the choromosomes become visible and the Centrioles separate and take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus
reproductive system
• The greatest period of development occurs in first trimester during which the embryo or fetus is most vulnerable to birth defects by chemicals...the 33rd trimester is largely one growth in the fetus, although some development still occurs
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the gentic information that is passed from one generation to the next
lymphatic and immune system
fluids and nutrients released by diffusion from the blood stream are returned to the blood via tubes of lymphatic system-->these fluids are filtered in lymph nodes were pathogens are removed and destroyed
reproductive system
• In females it consists of the ovaries, fallopian tubes uterus and vagina
chemical energy
he energy due to associations of atoms in molecules and various other kinds of aggregates of matter
m phase
cell division stage of a cells life, where mitosis occurs
nonrenewable energy
a natural resource that cannot be re-made, re-grown or regenerated on a scale comparative to its consumption
respiratory system
• Contains the epiglottis(prevents food blockage of trachea=choking), larynx(voice box), trachea, bronchi, and lungs
integumentary system
• 1st barrier to disease and the environment
nervous system
• Contains the central nervous system(the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system which contains the cranial, spinal and other peripheral nerves
second phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes line up across the middle of the center of the cell
small circular piece of dna
messenger RNA, serve as messangers from DNA to the rest of the cell
ABO gene
is codominant, type O has neither A nor B antigens, type A has A antigens only, type B has B antigens only type AB has both a and b antigens
renewable energy
resources which can be replenished by natural processes at a rate comparable or faster than its rate of consumption by humans or other users
mechanical energy
describes the potential energy and kinetic energy present in the components of a mechanical system.
muscular system
• Equivalent to cilia and flagella of protists. Mollusk shell closing muscles. Etc.
p generation
the parental generation; the first two individuals that match in a genetic cross...first two individuals in generation
Lymphatic and Immune System
The drainage and defense system
muscular system
• Works with skeletal system
reproductive system
• Implantation and development of the zygote into an embryo and then a fetus, occurs in the uterus over a period of 9 months
equation for cellular respiration
6O2+C6H12O66CO2+6H2O+Energy...oxygen and glucose carbon dioxide, water and energy
division of the cytoplasm in during cell division, part of cell cycle but different part of cell cycle than mitosis
ribosomal DNA, the make-up of ribosomes, key in ribosomal synthesis
the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of life and the interactions between organisms and their environment
metaphase 1
spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes which are lined up in the middle
a duplication of a chromosome
Mesophyll cells
ground tissue system of a leave, chief site of gas exchange
endocrine system
• Information signaling system that uses blood vessels as information channels
cardiovascular system
• contains heart and blood vessels
cardiovascular system
• Equivalents: xylem and phloem of plants, open circulatory systems of arthropods
an individuals physical makeup or appearance
male symbol
skeletal system
• Organs included are bones and cartilage
integumentary system
• equivalents are cell walls of monerans and plants, bark of trees
interphase 1
cells undergo a round of DNA replication, forming duplicate chromosomes
monohybrid cross
a cross involving one pair of contrasting traits
genotype of a colorblind male
light absorbing molecules that help plants to gather the suns energy
female symbol
connects bone to muscle
endocrine system
• Equivalent to plant growth hormones, insect hormones etc.
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction; a sex cell
a chart that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait across several analyzing a pedigree it is possible to determne whether a trait is controlled by a dominant or recessie gene and if it is sex linked or on an autosomal chromosome
the transmission of genetic traits from parent to offspring
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are compelementary to an mRNA codon
skeletal system
Equivalent to cell walls of monerans and plants, shells of mollusks, hydrostatic skeletons of cnidarians, exoskeletons of arthropods etc.
nervous system
• Uses nerves as information channels
reproductive system
• The fertilization of the ovum by the sperm occurs in the fallopian tubes
restriction enzymes
enzymes that cut dna at a specific sequence of nucleotides
the process of forming clones (members of a population tht are genetically identical cells produced from a single cell)
treating the patient and their cancer with drugs that disrupt cell division
muscular system
• The skeletal muscle contraction is controlled by the nervous system
cardiovascular system
• the action of the heart is to pump blood through the blood vessels...a 4 chambered heart separates the oxygenated blood(from the lungs) and deoxygenated blood(to the lungs) thus maximizing the amount of oxygen that reaches the body tissues; frogs have a 3 chambered heart
digestive system
• Primary organs through which food passes: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
excretory system
• Blood is filtered of wastes in the kidneys and a balance of solutes and body fluids is thus regulated by the production and release of urine
food web
extends the food chain concept from a simple linear pathway to a complex network of interactions...the whole complex network between animals in a food chain, ie instead of showing that sunlight gets used by plants which get eaten by bunnys it would show the possible things each thing can go to, ie shows that the plant can not only go to a bunny but to a hamster as well
nervous system
• Equivalent to the nerve nets of cnidarians, ganglia of worms etc.
guard cells
formed when the stoma is hydrated, they regulate the size of the stomata
shaded circle
represent female who is homozygous for the recessive trait; has the trait
the gentic makeup of an organism as indicated by its set of alleles
genotype of a female carrier with normal vision
gene therapy
the insertion of genes into an individual's cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one.
Cytokenesis in plant cells
a cell plate forms inside the cell and grows outward, eventually dividing the cell in two.-->result is two daughter cells each bounded by its own continous membrane and its own cell wall...cell plate divides cells
respiratory system
• Puts oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide
endocrine system
• Contains the hypothalamus, the pituary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, ovaries, testes, pancreas
an animal, organisms that cant make their own food, get it from eating other producers
Telophase and Cytokenesis 1
nuclear membranes form the cell seperates into two cells
recombinant dna
dna made from two or more different organism
the process by which plants use the sun light's energy, carbon dioxide and water to form glucose (sugar) and oxygen; using the suns energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars or plant food
cellular respiration
the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Prophase 1
each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome to form a tetrad (a structure of 4 chromatids, formed by chromosomes pairing with its homologous chromosome)
little r, only expressed if dominant trait is not present;genetic trait that is not expressed wen the contrasting form of the trait is present
chromosomal mutation
a mutation that affects many genes such as an extra chromosome, a deletion, a duplication, monosomy or translocation
skeletal system
Provides support as well as mineral storage and blood cell productive
chemical released by activated mast cells that increase the flow of blood and fluids to the surrounding area
rh blood system
A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+, O-
punnett square
a diagram that is used to predict the outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment, can be monohybrid, dihybrid or trihybrid
dna tape, links or combines the two different dna from the organsisms to make recombinant dna
sex linked traits
traits that are dominant or recessive depending on gender, disorder pertinent to gender, ie females cant be colorblind..traits can only be carried or present on X or female gene
g2 phase
second stage of growth
a consumer,Animals and people who eat both animals and plants are such as humans and crows
crossing over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis, that way each chromosome pair now has different chromatids...can cause cell differentiation and eventually evolution
These are the living things which feed off dead plants and animals and reduce their remains to minerals and gases again. Examples are fungi, like mushrooms, and bacteria
skeletal system
Equivalent to cell walls of monerans and plants, shells of mollusks, hydrostatic skeletons of cnidarians, exoskeletons of arthropods etc.
excretory system
• Removes the wastes from the body
a change in the DNA sequence that affects the genetic information
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
cardiovascular system
• Organs are heart veins arteries and capillaries
reproductive system
• Haploid gametes are produced in the ovaries and testes
light energy
the energy generated from light (sun)
genetically modified food
foods that have been enhanced via the use of recombinant dna, ie having corn with vitamins, rice with vitamins or pest resistant tomatoes
an elevated body temperature
four blood groups
A,B, AB, O
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled, on the rough ER's in a cell, made of RNA and proteins. key function is protein synthesis
excretory system
• Contains kidneys ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
nervous system
• Controls all body functions, senses and recognizes information from in and outside the body
potential energy
stored energy, the work done against a given force
Gel electrophoresis
procedure used to separate and analyze dna fragments by placing a mixture of dna fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
a group of protins that help other cells resist viral infection; they interfere with the growth of the virus and inhibit the synthesis of viral proteins in infected cells and block viral replication
cardiovascular system
• Works with the respiratory system
rh gene
is Rh+ meaning rh antigens are present or rh- when no rh antigens are present, a plus or minus etc.
respiratory system
the system for the means of gas exchange
reproductive system
• Organs include female and male genitals, and hormone glands
cardiovascular system
• Carries materials to the bodies cells and takes away wastes
organism that can capture energy from sunlight and chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; a plant
forensic science
the use of science and genetic engineering in the justice system and crimes
integumentary system
the first line of defense; skin
genetic engineering
making changes in the dna code of a living organism
muscular system
• Helps push materials through the body
energy transformations
any process of transforming one form of energy to another. Energy of fossil fuels, solar radiation, or nuclear fuels can be converted into other energy forms such as electrical, propulsive, or heating that are more useful to us
stem cell therapy
turning an undiffertiated cell into a cell that can be used to replace an organ or make new organs or limbs that would help someone; using undifferntiated cells for therapeutic reasons
nervous system
rapid control of the body
g1 phase
first stage of cell growth
primary source of energy
sun and light energy
respiratory system
• Controls the intake of oxygen and carbon dioxide into the blood
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
muscular system
• Helps the body to move
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move towards opposite poles
kinetic energy
energy of motion, the work required to accelerate an object to a given speed.
period of cell cycle between cell divisions, cell spends 90% of life in this stage, includes growth and synthesis stages of cell cycle
carbon cycle
biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth....shows the carbon exchange and paths throughout the earth and atmosphere
cross section in middle of cell where the chromotaids of a chromosome are attached
something that has multiple genes controlling one trait ie eye color and blood rh types
humeral immunity
when b cells provide immunity against antigens and pathogens in the body fluids
a plant, organisms which can create their own food
fourth and final phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material..almost at two full separate cells. However, this cytoplasm and dense material is not separated until cytokenesis when the cytoplasm is divided.
scientist who discovered genetics heredity and made important disoveries revolving around mitosis and meoisis
integumentary system
barrier to pathogens
sterm used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes, with 23 chromosomes
restriction sites
the areas at which restriction enzymes are used; the areas containing the specific dna sequences
cell respiration takes place in the mitochondria, cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy
active immunity
the type of immunity produced by the bodys reaction to a vaccine
dihybrid cross
a cross involving two pairs of contrasting traits
vascular tissue that carriers water upward from the root to every part of a plant
endocrine system
the SLOW control of the body
skeletal system
• Works with muscles for movement
sex chromosome
one of the two chromosomes that are used to determine an individuals sex
water cycle
describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the, shows how water is formed and continuously disintegrated to be re-formed again
endocrine system
• Its for the slow control of the bodies functions through chemical means or via hormones, these hormones travel through the blood stream and control everything from growth and development to blood sugar levels
refers to an individual with two identitcal alleles for a trait
respiratory system
• Works with the cardiovascular system
cell mediated immunity
when t cells provide a defense against abnormal cells and pathogens living inside cells
a fertilized egg
the spread of cancer cells beyond their original cells; is generally dangerous, makes a tumor malignant in many cases
lymphatic and immune system
• organs include lymph nodes, white blood cells and skin
muscular system
• It moves the body, maintains body position and organ volume and generates body heart
reproductive system
• Produces sex cells to create children
R, big R, expressed; genetic trait that is expressed when its allele is homozygous o heterozygous
benign tumor
a grouping of cells known as a tumor which is not harmful to the body and doesn't grow in size (generally)
malignant tumor
a harmful tumor, can result in other diseases and problems, can spread to other parts of the body etc. has the ability to metastases
lymphatic and immune system
• equivalent to xylem and phloem of plants, open circulatory system of arthropods
vertical line
connects parents to offspring
genotype of a male with normal vision
reproductive system
• Equivalent to the binary fission of monerans and protists, budding of the yeasts or plant flowers etc.
a word, phrase, number or other sequence of units that has the property of reading the same in either direction
produces RNA molecules which are produced by copying part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA into a complementary sequence in RNA, a process known as transcription. During transcription, DNA is turned into a strand of RNA.
the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels; the anti forms of this drug are being used to fight cancer because it stops the growth of new cancerous blood cells so they cant continue to form or replicate within the body
lactic acid fermentation
anaerobic process which creates lactic acid which is why your muscles burn after intense workout...from a lack of oxygen
palisade layer
area of cells that are responsible for photosynthesis
RNA polymerase
an enzyme which forms the RNA, it creates or synthesizes a RNA strand after using a strand of DNA as a template....creates RNA copy of DNA...binds only to promoters, or specific reigons DNA which are DNA signals that indicate to protein polymerase where to bind to make RNA. Enyzyme similar to dna polymerase that binds to dna and seperates the dna strands during transcription
reproductive system
• In males it consists of the testes, vas deferens, prostate and cowpers gland, urethra and penis
integumentary system
controls body temperature
nervous system
• Contains Sympathetic: it controls the body reactions to stress.,...parasympathetic: slows son the body in the absence of stress
integumentary system
keeps body fluids and organs inside body
skeletal system
the support structure
nitrogen cycle
biogeochemical cycle that describes the transformations of nitrogen and nitrogen-containing compounds in nature. It is a gaseous cycle., shows nitrogen on the earth and how it is exchanged/used by organisms absorbed etc.
reproductive system
• Controls female and male characteristics
food chain
The living part of an ecosystem is sometimes called a.... The order that animals feed on other plants and animals
photograph of chromosomes grouped in pairs, used to diagnose chromosal disorders and mutations
a consumer.Animals who eat other animals are called... such as a lion.
transgenic animal
an animal that contains genes from other organisms
Metaphase 2
the chromosomes line up in the center of the cell in a similar way to they would during the metaphase stage of mitosis
inflammatory response
a nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection

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