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Respiratory System

Terms

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thoracotomy
incision into the chest
-pnea
breathing
hypopnea
shallow breathing
sinus/o
sinus (cavity)
lobes
subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right
percussion
physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity such as the chest
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
pulmonary angiography
x-ray of the blood vessels of the lungs after injection of contrast material
tachypnea
fast breathing
continuous postive airway pressure (CPAP)
device that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages, commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea
capn/o
carbon dioxide
pulmon/o
lung
alveol/o
alveolus ( air sac)
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
antihistamine
drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
ox/o
oxygen
pneumon/o
air or lung
bronchiol/o
bronchiole (little airway)
incentive spirometry
common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and repeatedly sustain an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
anticoagulant
drug that dissolves, or prevent the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
rhin/o
nose
bradypnea
slow breathing
laryng/o
larynx ( voice box)
lung biopsy (Bx)
removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathological examination
lung scan
two-part nuclear scan of the lungs to detect abnormalities of perfusion or ventilation, commonly called a V/Q scan Ventilation scan-made as the patient breathes radioactive material into the airway Perfunsion scan- made after radioactive material is injuected into the blood and circulates to the lungs
arterial blood gases (ABGs)
analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
magnetic resonance image (MRI)
nonionizing image of the lung to visualize lung lesions
steth/o
chest
trache/o
trachea (windpipe)
thoracostomy
creation of an opening in the chest usually for insertion of a tube
bronchoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope to examine the airways
thoracoplasty
repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
pneumocystis pneumonia
pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism- a common opportunictic infection sen in those with postive human immunodeficiency
tonsill/o
tonsil (almond)
adeniodectomy
excision of the adenoids
cilia
hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, that provide upward movement of mucus cell secretions
antibiotic
drug that kills or inhibits the growth of micoorganisms
pneumonia
inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals
hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
empyema
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
radiology
x-ray imaging
pneumonectomy
removal of an entire lung
peak flow (PF) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air aftera maximal inspiration
bronchodilator
drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
upper respiratory infectino (URI)
infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
emphysema
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
pH
a measure of blood acidity or alkalinity
crackles/ rales
popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli- occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
histamine
compound in the body that is released by injured cells in allergic reactions, inflammation,etc., causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle, dilaton of blood vessels
auscultation
to listen; physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds
uvul/o
uvula
spir/o
breathing
pector/o
chest
sputum
material expelled from the lungs by coughing
tonsillectomy
excision of the palatine tonsils
nasal polypectomy
removal of a nasal polyp
spirometry
portion of pulmonary functions testing that is a direct measurment of lung volume and capacity
pleur/o
pleura
wheezes/ rhonchi
high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway- occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
nasal polyposis
presence of numerous polyps in the nose
hyperpnea
deep breathing
tracheostomy
creation of an opening in the trachea, most often to insert a tube
dysphonia
hoarseness
parenchyma
functional tissues of any organ such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs that perform respiration
cystic fibrosis
inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infection, inflammation, and lung tissue damage
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
hemothorax
accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity
bronchi/o
bronchus (airway)
oropharynx
central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
PaO2
partial pressure of oxygen measuring the amount of oxygen in the blood
adeniod
lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose- also called pharyngeal tonsil
thorac/o
chest
endotracheal intubation
passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs
expectorant
drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing
computed tomography (CT)
computed x-ray imaging of the head is used to visualize the stuctures of the nose and sinuses; CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung
epistaxis
nosebleed
lob/o
lobe (a portion)
hemoptysis
coughing up and spitting out blood origination in the lungs
nasopharynx
part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
carb/o
carbon dioxide
pulse oximetry
nonivasive method of estimating the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood using an oximeter with a specialized probe attached to the skin at a site of arterial pulsation, commonly the finger; used to monitor hypoxemia
epiglottis
lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
mediastinum
partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (that contain the right and left lung) and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
chest x-ray (CXR)
x-ray image of the chest to visualize the lungs
laryngopharynx
lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and the esophagus
tracheotomy
incision into the trachea
orthopnea
ability to breathe only in an upright position
atelectasis
collapse of lung tissue
pneum/o
air or lung
endoscopy
examination of a body cavity with a flexible endoscope to examine within for diagnostic or treatment purposes
tidal volume (TV or Vt)
amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration
mechanical ventilation
mechanical method performed by a respiratory therapist to provide assisted breathing using a ventilator
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
pulmonary function testing (PFT)
direct and indirect measurements of lung volumes and capacities
sinuses
air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
pleuritis/pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura
nasopharyngoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx to diagnose structural abnormalities such as obstructions, growths, and cancers
apnea
inability to breathe
PaCO2
partial pressure of carbon dioxide measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
bronch/o
bronchus (airway)
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
method of artificial respiration and closed-chest massage used to restore breathing and cardiac output after cardiac arrest
thoracentesis
puncture for aspiration of the chest
or/o
mouth
pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions
palat/o
palate
expectoration
coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
lobectomy
removal of a lobe of a lung
rhinorrhea
thin, watery discharge from the nose
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
phren/o
diaphragm (also mind)
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A)
excision of the tonsils and adenoids
hypercapnia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypercarbia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
polysomnography (PSG)
recording of various aspects of sleep for diagnosis of sleep disorders
caseous necrosis
degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance
nas/o
nose
pneumoconiosis
chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts such as coal, asbestos, or silicone
palate
partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate
pyothorax
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
tonsils
oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion-also called palatine tonsils
eupnea
normal breathing
vital capacity (VC)
amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration
thoracoscopy
endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thoracoscope
pulmonary embolism (PE)
occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot

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