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Science 05-06


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4 humors
blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile
"3 stages of disease" in history
1. imbalance
2. fever
3. excretion or death
"father of western medicine." thought diseases had natural causes/imbalance. observed symptoms.
compare human organs to animal ones, observed difference between nerves and tendons, believed in embryos
"Father of Anatomy." studied brains as the center of the nervous system. distiguished between cerebrum and cerebellum and between sensory and motor nerves.
leader of alexandrian school, studied heart, delineated veins and arteries, thought that veins brought blood and arteries brought "animal spirits"(seems like hormones) and nerves brought nervous spirits to the organs, and discovered parts of the brain
doctor to the gladiators, said arteries carry blood instead of air, studied muscles, bones, and heart. used animals to study. He was physician to the Emperor's son and saw a connection between spinal cord, paralysis, and movement. saw diaphragm used in breathing. studied liver, kidneys, and heart but was wrong on their locations.
Andreas Vesalius
dissected people and drew findings. undid a lot of Galen's inaccurances, but was confused on others. Helped find circulation. Criticized bloodletting.
Michael Servetus
discovered blood went from the right chamber to the lungs and that the septum was impermeable
Realdo Comlubus
1st used the term circulation for blood and studied breathing
William Harvey
acknowledged and creditted Columbus and studied the heart
to cut
gross anatomy
unaided eye study of large organs
microscopic anatomy
study of cells(cytology) and tissue(histology)
radiological anatomy
electromagnetic imagin, can detect irregular blood flow
anatomical position
face forawrd, standing erect, hands at sides w/ palms forward
cut dividing left and right, a midsagittal divides body in half from top to bottom
cuts horitantal to divid top and bottom, one slice=cross section
cuts front from back, also called a coronal section
They what?
they dissected living breathing people!!!!!!!!!!!
bilateral symmetry
right is almost perfect reflection of left
to the top
to the back
towards the mid sagittal
to the sides
closest to point of attatchment for the limb
further away from point of attachement
cronial cavity
holds brain
spinal cavity
holds spinal cord
thoracic cavity
holds heart, esophagus, longs, trachea, branchi
abdominal cavity
holds digestive, reproductive, and excretory
performs specific function within a cel
equilibrium, balance, health
sum of energy reactions at a given time
group of similiar cells that perform specific functions
Bologna 1063
1/3 of the city's population were into anatomy/science. many were doctors during the crusades
eyes, ears, colon. 3 women followers
alessandro Achillini
studied choledochus, colon, gall bladder
berengario da capri
appendix, thyme, cardiac valves, fractures, cranium, and mercury as a method of treating syphilis
Gaspare Tag
began plastic surgery
da Vinci
fluids, dissected criminals, drew discoveries, wrote notes in reverse w/ left hand
was allowed to study dead b/c gave a cross to a church. got sick b/c of his dealing w/ the dead
albrecht durer
drew people as through anatomy
gabriello fallopi
head, ear, reproduction, bones, muscles, suphillus
bartolomeo eustochius
kidneys, teeth, blood, stirrup, ear-mouth canal, drew muscles, heart valve
hieronymus Frabicius
taught Harvey, valves in viens, stomach, ear, eye and larnyx
marcello malpighi
Bologna, used microscope to study capularies, kidneys, and corpuscles
henry gray
embryos, bones, joints, muscles, blood, lymphatic systom
Gray's anatomy
1858, big collection of info
2 or more organs that perform a complex function
interstitial fluid
fluid between cells
ionic compounds that disociate in water
cellular respiration
converts energy in chemical bonds to bonds in ATP
epithelial tissue
skin, inner lining of cavities, cover/line the organs
simple squamous epithelium
single layer of flat cells
simple cuboidal epithelium
single layer of square cells
simple columnar epithelium
singl layer of taller than wide cells
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
seems stratisfied, but is really simple b/c is one layer
stratisfied squamous epithelium
base layer of cells that grow forcing others to top, flat
stratisfied cuboidal epithelium
base layer of cells that grow forcing others to top, square
stratisfied columnar epithelium
base layer of cells that grow forcing others to top, taller than wide
transitional epithelium
pseudostratisfied, relaxed-cuboidal, flat when stretched
glandular epithelium
Columnar epithelium with goblet cells
goblet cells
cells that open at the top to hold hair foliculars/other
connective tissue
protection, support, store fat, produce blood cells
connective tissue fibers
extracellular matrix, collagen, proteoglycan
layers(lamelloc) of collagen matrix hardened by calcium salts and made by osteoblasts
connective tissue
muscle tissue
bundle of fibers that contract, cardio, skeletal, and smooth
nervous tissue
neurons and nearoglia
long bones
longer than wide, levers, arm and leg
short/cube shaped in compact areas, carpals and tarsals
thin and dense, ribs, some cranial bones, and scapulae
irregular bones
vertebra, and most cranium bones
sertual bones
between some cranial joints
sesmoid bones
enveloped by tendons, patella
compact tissue
dense bone
spongy tissue
concellous bone
fibrous membrane, helps with muscle tendon attachment
secrete bone matrix
lacunae (singular=lacuna0
holes in bones
mature bone cells
blood cell production
hemotopoieti stem cells
red bone marrow cell
produces exythrocytes 9red blood cells) leukocytes (white bloods cells) and platelets
pattern for layers in spongy bone
process that transforms embryohic tissue, or cartilage, into bone
erode cartilage to make room for permanent bone
bone make up
1/4 collogen fibers and glycoprotiens
3/4 CaP, CaC, CaOH
babies born w/ how many bones?
270 soft boes
adults have how many bones?
harndening of cartiligious skeleton, especially in babies
cartilage cells
hormone for bone growth
autologous transplant
from different part of patient
allegeneic transplant
from another person

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