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Bio Flashcards-Exam II


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A ____ hormone acts through receptors on the cell's surface and on secondary messengers. Is it the same or different from steroid hormones?
peptide; different from steroid hormones.
A ____hormone binds to the cell membrane receptor....(fill in rest)
peptide hormone
long-distance communication is possible with ____.
A ____hormone passes through the cell membrane, posibly the nuclear envelope; then binds to receptor protein after DNA trans.
steroid hormone
___produced by the pancreas affects liver metabolism.
____produced by the hypothalamus affect the anterior pituitary.
Releasing Hormones
____affect the membrane potential of nearby neurons.
An example of a hormone that acts at a distance between individualss is ____.
Give 2 examples of hormones (check if insulin is a hormone) that act at a distance between body parts are ___ and _____.
Insulin and Releasing Hormones produced by the Hypothalamus.
Which chromosome leads to the production and development of testes?
the Y-chromosome
The ____gene is the sex-determining region of Y.
If the SRY gene is present in a human, the human's gender is_____.
When it becomes darker, your body produces less or more melatonin?
dark-more melatonin
_____stimulate the development of male secondary sex characteristics and maturation of sperm cells.
In females, what does the Lutinizing hormone do?
1) induces production, maturation of eggs, and release of estrogen.
2) involved with the development of secondary sex chracteristics.
What are silia and phagela?
tiny hairs
When you are awake and it is light outside, you produce less melatonin.
light-less melatonin.
How many eggs are contained in theh ovaries?
1/4 million eggs
In tribal Africa, what is the man's role?
to design hunting weapons and to hunt.
In tribal Africa, what is the female's role?
to care for children
Name the Scottish tradition covered in the video.
males play tug-of-war
If the SRY gene is absent in a human, the gender is _____.
Name the tradition (of the South Pacific) presented in the video.
males engage in a fruit-bearing contest (requires enormous amount of power)
Name a tradition presented in the video notes which exists in Turkey
men-oil wrestiling contests: (they put oil on their bodies to make them more difficult to grasp).
The typical female has ____(fraction) as much muscle tissue as the male (so she can carry ____(fraction) as much weight.
1/2; 1/2
By puberty how much more fat does the average woman have than the average man?
2 times more fat
In which way, if any, is the female considered "physically superior" to the male?
A female is considered "phsyically superior" to a male when she has twice as much fat as a male.
According to the video, theoretically, how many types of leg-crossings do people exhibit?
4 types of leg-crossings
From the video: What is a tradition in the Philippines that teaches soldiers to walk with a straight back?
balancing bananas on their heads
Have women always had longer average life spans than men?
NO-women used to live 20% shorter lives than men (primitive times)
(From the video): Where are social conditions equal in both men and women?
(From the video): What has acted to exaggerate biological differences between men and women?
Cultural Variations
The external female genitals are collectively called ____.
The external female genitals consist of the ____, ____, ____, and ____.
Labia Majora
Labia Minora
Mons Pubis
Glans Clitoris
When a woman has an orgasm, which three vaginal structures become engorged with blood?
Labia Minora
Vaginal Wall
What are the steps of fertilization?
1) several sperm penetrate corona radiata.
2) several several sperm attempt to penetrate zona pellucida.
3) One sperm enters egg and nuclei fuse, producing a zygote.
The presence of what hormone in a woman's blood indicates that she is pregnant?
human gonadotropic hormone.
What does polyspermy mean?
entrance of more than one sperm.
Immediately after fertilization, the zygote begins to divide so that there are first ___, then ___, ___, ___, and ___ cells, and so forth. This division process is known as ____.
2, then 4, then 8, then 16, then 32 cells; cleavage.
During embryonic development, cell division is accompanied by an increase in the ____of daughter cells.
____refers to the shaping of the embryo and is first evident when certain cells are seen to move, or migrate, in relation to other cells. By these movements, the embryo begins to assume various shapes.
When cells take on a specific structure and function, _____occurs.
The first system to become visibly differentiated is the ____ ____.
nervous system
The steps of embryonic development are :
cleavage, growth, morphogenesis, differentiation
The _____membranes are membranes outside the embryo.
extraembryonic membranes
The ____membranes are named for their function in shelled animals.
extraembryonic membranes
The extraembryonic membranes are:
1) chorion
2) yolk sac
3) allantois
4) amnion
The extraembryonic membrane___develops into the fetal half of the placenta.
The extraembryonic membrane ___ ___is the first site of blood cell formation.
yolk sac
The extraembryonic membrane____blood vessels become the umbilical cord vessels.
Development encompasses the events that occur from fertilization to birth. In humans, this ____period is usually calculated by adding 280 days to the start of the last menstruation, a date that is usually known.
gestation period
Only about ___percent of babies are born on the gestation date.
A ____ is a compact ball of embryonic cells that becomes a blastocyst.
The many cells of the blastocyst arrange themselves so that there is an inner cell mass surrounded by a layer of cells, the ____. The trophoblast will become the ____.
trophoblast; chorion
Embryonic development begins with the ___(#) week and lasts until the ___(#) month of development.
2nd week; 2nd month
At the end of the ___week of embryonic development, the embryo usually begins the process of implanting itself in the wall of the uterus.
first week
During implantation, the trophoblast secretes ___ ___ ____, the hormone that is the basis for the pregnancy test.
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
As the second week of embryonic development passes, the inner cell mass detaches and becomes the ____ ___, and 2 more embryonic membranes form.
embryonic disk
In humans, ____ ___acts as an insulator against cold and heat and also absorbs shock, such as that caused by the mother exercising.
amniotic fluid
With the start of the major event called ____, the inner cell mass becomes the embryonic disk.
Gastrulation is an example of _____ during which cells move or migrate.
During gastrulation cells migrate to become tissue layers called the ____ ____ _____.
primary germ layers
During the 3rd week of embryonic development, which two organ systems make their appearance?
the nervous system and the heart
Development of the heart begins in the ____week oof embryonic development and continues into the ___week.
3rd week; 4th week
At first (in the 3rd week of embryonic development), there are right and left heart tubes; when these fuse, the heart begins pumping blood, even though the chambers of the heart are not fully formed. The ___enter posteriorly, and the ____ exit anteriorly
veins; arteries; anteriorly
At 4 weeks of embryonic development, a body stalk connects the caudal (tail) end of the embryo with the ___, which has treelike projections called ____ ____.
chorion; chorionic villi
The 4th extraembryonic membrane, the _____, lies within the body stalk, and its blood vessels become the umbilical blood vessels.
In the _____ weeks of embryonic development, little flippers called limb buds appear; later, the arms and legs develop from the limb buds, and even the hands and the feet become apparent. Also during the 5th week of embryonic development: _______.
4th and 5th weeks of embryonic development; the head enlarges, and the sense organs become more prominent. It is possible to make out the developing eyes and ears, and even the nose.
During the ___ through the ___weeks of embryonic development, the embryo changes to a form that is easily recognized as a human being.
6th through 8th weeks of embryonic development
The placenta is shaped like a ____, being wider in diameter than it is thick.
The placenta has 2 portions: a fetal portion composed of ____ tissue and a maternal portion composed of ____tissue.
fetal portion: chorionic tissue
maternal portion: uterine tissuse
Chorionic villi cover the entire surface of the chorion until about the ___week when they begin to disappear; except in one area. These villi are surrounded by maternal blood.
8th week
The ____ ____ consists of the epithelial wall of an embryonic capillary and the epithelial wall of a chorionic villus.
placental membrane
The umbilical cord is the fetal lifeline because it contains the umbilical arteries and vein, which transport waste molecules (c02 and urea) to the ____for waste disposal and ____and nutrient molecule from the placenta to ____________.
placenta; oxygen and nutrient molecules from the placenta to the rest of the circulatory system.
First the trophoblast, then the chorion, and then the placenta produce ______.
____prevents the normal degeneration of the corpus luteum and, instead, stimulates it to secrete even larger quantities of _______.
HCG; progesterone
Placental ____and _____maintain the endometrium and have a negative feedback on the anterior pituitary so that it ceases to produce ____ ____during pregnancy.
placental estrogen and progesterone; gonadotropic hormones
Fetal development includes the ___through the ___months of development. At this time, the fetus looks human.
3rd through the 9th months fetal development.
Between the 3rd through 9th month of fetal development, cartilage remains at the ends of the long bones, and ____is not complete until age 18 to 20 years.
The skull has skull large membraneous areas called ___, which permit a certain amount of flexibility as the head passes through the birth canal and allow rapid growth of the brain during infancy.
Progressive fusion of the skull bones cause the fontanels to close, usually by __ years of age.
2 years
Sometime during the __rd month, it is possible to distinguish males from females.
3rd month
In the last ____of fetal development, the testes descend into the scrotal sacs.
During the ____month of fetal development, the fetal heartbeat is loud enough to be heard when a physician applies a stethoscope to the mother's abdomen, and fetal development can be felt by women who previously have been pregnant.
4th month
By the end of the 4th month of fetal development, the fetus is about ___inches long and weighs about ____oz.
6 in; 6oz.
5th through 7th months of fetal development: the fetus is covered with a wrinkled, transclucent, pink-covered skin called _____.
A fetus' lanugo is covered with a white, greasy, cheeselike substance called ___ ____, which probably protects the delicate skin from the amniotic fluid.
vernix caseosa
At the end of the 5th through 7 month period of fetal development, the fetus' length has increased to __in, and the weight is ___lb.
12 in; 3 lb.
It is possible for the fetus to survive at the end of the ____ to ___month period of fetal development.
5th to 7th month
As the end of development approaches, the fetus usually rotates so that the head is pointed toward the ____. However, if the fetus does not turn, a ____birth (rump first) is likely.
cervxix; breech birth
At the end of ___months, the fetus is about ___in. long and weighs about ___lb.
nine months; 20.5lb; 7.5 in
What are the effects of Rubella on an unborn child? (mother as carrier)
blindness, deafness, mental retardation, heart malformations, and other serious problems.
A pregnant woman needs more ___ daily to meet an increased rate of cell division and and DNA synthesis in her own body and that of the developing child.
folate (folic acid)
A maternal deficiency of folate has been linked to development of neural tube defects in the fetus. These effects include ___ ___(spinal cord or spinal fluid bulge through the back) and _____(absence of a brain).
spina bifida; anencephaly
___ babies now make up ___%of drug-affected babies. Cocaine causes severe fluctuations in a mother's blood pressure that temporarily deprive the developing fetus' brain of oxygen.
Agents that produce abnormalities during development are called _____.
An Rh-negative woman who has given birth to an Rh-positive child should receive an Rh immunoglobulin injection within___hours to prevent her body from producing _____.
72; Rh antibodies
"False-labor contractions" are called ____ ___ ____. However, the onset of true labor is marked by uterine contractions that occur every __-__min. and last for ____seconds or longer.
Braxton Hicks Contractions; 15-20 min; 40 sec. or longer.
Prior to the 1st stage of ____, which is the process of giving birth to an offspring, there can be a "bloody show" caused by the expulsion of a ___ ___ from the cervical canal.
parturition; mucous plug
In stage __ of labor: the uterine contractions occur in such a way that the cervical canal slowly disappears as the lower part of the uterus is pulled upward toward the baby's head.
stage 1
The 1st stage of ____ends once the cervix is dilated completely.
During the __ stage of parturition, the uterine contractions occur every 1 to 2 minutes and last about 1 min. each. They are accompanied by a desire to push, or bear down.
second stage
In the 2nd stage of parturition (giving birth), an ____is often performed to allow for expansion fo passage of the head.
In stage ___of parturition, the placenta, or afterbirth, is delivered. About 15 min. after delivery of the baby, uterine muscular contractions shrink the uterus and dislodge the placenta. The placenta is then dislodged into the vagina.
3rd stage
The 2 aspects of activating sexual response have been divided into 2 distinct categories: _____ and _____.
the central arousal system, referring to internal factors, and the peripheral arousal system, referring to external factors.
As blood begins to build up (known as ____) in the blood vessels of the genital region, the vaginal walls darken in color, a change that is not visible externally.
Particularly for females, genital responses must be supported by ____cues and stimuli in order to create a sexual context.
environmental cues
Another change during the _____phase is the lengthening and distention of the inner one-third of the vagina.
excitement phase
The vasocongestion causes changes in the ___ ___ and ____as they begin to enlarge and sometimes to open slightly.
labia majora and labia minora
The second stage of the female sexual response system is called the ____phase.
plateau phase
The swelling of the outer third of the vagina and the minor lips seems to create the tension that is an important precursor of orgasm, so together they are termed the ____ _____.
"orgasmic platform"
During the plateau phase, the __ ___retracts under its foreskin so that it no longer receives any direct stimulation.
clitoral glans
During the ____ ____of female sexual response, the breasts have usually become somwhat engorged by this time, and nipple erection may be maintained.
plateau phase
During the ____ phase of female sexual arousal, the sex flush, if present, sometimes spreads to the shoulders, back, buttocks, and thighs.
plateau phase
During the ___phase of female sexual response, muscular tension continues to increase, along with heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure. Heart rate usually increases to betweem ___ and ____beats per minute.
plateau phase; 100 and 175 beats per minute.
In females, the orgasm is preceeded by a sensation of "_____", at which time the pulse rate reaches its peak.
During the pleasurable feelings of the ____phase, there are muscular contractions in the outer third of the vagina and in the anal area.
orgasmic phase
During the ____ Phase, the body gradually returns to its unexcited state.
Resolution Phase
During ____, the other signs of sexual arousal gradually disappear.
In 1953, ___ __ ____, preeminent sex researcher and founder of the sex institute, reported that 14% of the women surveyed regularly experienced sequential or multiple orgasms during sexual encounters.
Alfred C. Kinsey
___ and ___proposed that most, if not all, women have the potential for more than 1 orgasm.
Masters and Johnson
Researchers report different types of orgasms in women: one is stimulation of the cervix, also known as a ____orgasm.
uterine orgasm
It has also been suggested that some women experience a "blended orgasm," which is a combination of ___________.
the clitoral-vulval experience and the uterine orgasm.
The difference in orgasmic responses in women could be due to the 2 different nerve pathways that serve the sex organs: the _____nerves and the ____nerves.
pudendal nerves and the pelvic nerves.
In women, the pudendal nerve system connects with the ____, and the pelvic system innervates the ___,___, and ____. It is therefore hypothesized that there may be two different neurological routes to producing orgasm.
clitoris; vagina, cervix, and uterus.
The existence of the G spot was produced years ago by a man named ____.
Evidence does seem to indicate that stimulation of the ____ ___of the vagina usually results in more sexual arousal than stimulation of the back wall.
anterior wall of the vagina
Some women might ejaculate a semenlike substance from their ___at the time of orgasm.
It has been hypothesized that the ___glands, located inside the urethra, might be similar to the prostate of males.
Skene glands
In the early 1950s, a surgeon by the name of ___ ____developed exercises for the pubococcygeal (PC) muscle that surrounds the vagina.
Arnold Kegel
Kegel found that in some of his subjects a well-toned ___ muscle increased the ability to experience orgasmic satisfaction.
PC muscle
Although is has been recommended that these contractions be done in sets of ___, building up to several sets each day, some experts now believe it is unecessary, or even unwise, to exercise the PC muscle too much.
_____in the pelvic area during early sexual arousal contributes to erection of the penis, the first sign of the excitement phase in males.
____also causes thickening of the scrotal tissue, and the scrotum pulls up toward the body.
The testes become elevated within the scrotum, although if the excitement phase continues for more than __ or __minutes, the testes return to their original position for a time.
5 or 10 minutes
___erection and the appearance of the __ ___ are less comon in males than in females, but both phenomena are usually first observed during the excitement phase if they occur at all.
Nipple erection; sex flush
During the ___ ___ ___, musular tension increases throughout the body, and the heart rate and blood pressure both increase. Sometimes secretion from the ____(Cowper glands) appears during this stage, or even preceding erection.
late excitement phase; bulbourethral glands
During the ____phase, the corona of the glans of the penis becomes more swollen, and the glans itself may take on a deeper, often reddish-purple color. The testes increase in size by ___ or more and become elevated up toward the body.
plateau phase; 50%
During the ___phase, muscular tension heightens considerably, and involuntary body movements increase as orgasm approaches. The nipples may become erect. Males often display clutching or grasping movements of the hands. The heart rate also increases to b
plateau phase
In males, actual orgasm and ejaculation are preceeded by a distinct inner sensation that orgasm is imminent. This has been called ____ ___.
ejaculatory inevitability.
The muscles at the base of the penis and around the anus contract rythmically, with intervals of about 0.8 second between the first ___ or ___contractions.
three or four
During resolution, most males experiencea period of time during which they cannot be restimulated to ejaculation. This period of time is known as the _____period.
refractory period
A popular notion contends that sex hormones control our levels of interest in sexual activity. This assumption would have us believe that the more "_____" people produce in their bodies, the stronger are their sex drives.
A direct correlation has been found between the ____ ____levels in adolescent males and their levels of sexual activity.
salivary testosterone levels
It has been taught that hormones exert their influences in one of two ways: one is called an ____effect and refers to ways in which hormones control patterns of early development in the body, playing a crucial role in the structure and function of partic
organizing and activating effect
The ____effect describes the potential some hormones can have for affecting an actual behavior, either by activating it or deactivating it.
activating effect
Recent studies demonstrate that the ____arousal system, in which internal stimuli are processed by the brain, is probably more dependent on the presence of hormones for activation than is the peripheral nervous system, which is far more susceptible to lo
central arousal system
The hormone that has been shown to have the most effect on sexual desire and behavior in humans is ____.
Men's bodies tend to produce __ to __ times more testosterone than do womens' bodies. However, the hormone also plays a vital role in enabling women to become sexually aroused.
10 to 15 times more testosterone
There is a prevalent attitude in our culture that aging puts an end to responding sexually. Older people who accept this myth may allow their beliefs to become ___-____prophecy.
2 manifestations of post-menopausal imbalance can cause unpleasant sensations during sexual activity in some older women. First, because the ___lining has thinned and vaginal lubrication has possibly become reduced, intercourse may produce irritation tha
vaginal lining; uterine cramping
One effect of aging on female sexual response is a lengthening of the time for _____ and other early signs of sexual arousal to take place. There is also less enlargement of the ___, ___, ___ and ____during sexual arousal.
vaginal lubrication; clitoris, labia, uterus, and breasts
The ___phase of female sexual response, during which the body returns to its unexcited state, appears to be relatively unaffected by the aging process.
resolution phase
3 aspects of male sexual response undergo predictable changes as men age. The first is ___, the second relates to male ____and ejaculation.
erection; male orgasm and ejaculation; a lengthening of the male refractory period.
___is named for the tiny bacterium that causes it, chlamidia trachomatis.
As many as ___percent of American women have vaginal chlamidial infections, and most of those cases are asymptomatic.
18 percent.
For every resported case of Chlamidia in men, more than ___cases are detected in women.
more than 5 cases detected in women for every reported case of Chlamidia in men.
____is the leading STD in the United States.
About 8 to 21 days after infection of chlamidia, men may experience a ___ ___ ____ on urination and a ___ discharge.
mild burning sensation on urination and a mucoid discharge.
Unfortunately, a physician may mistakenly diagnose chlamidial symptoms as a ___ or ____infection and prescribe the wrong type of antibiotic, or the person may never seek medical help.
gonorrheal or urinary infection may be mistaken as Chlamidia.
In the instances in which Chlamidia results in a gonorrheal or urinary infection, ___ ___ ____disease results..
pelvic inflammatory disease
____ ___ ____can lead to a blockage of the uterine tubes, with the possibility of sterility or ectopic pregnancy.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
If a newborn comes into contact with ___ during delivery, pnemonia or inflammation of the eyes can result.
Criteria used for diagnosis and treatment of _____include: no more than 24 years old, having had a new sex partner within the preceeding 2 months; experiencing a cervical discharge, bleeding during parts of the vaginal exam;and using a nonbarrier method
___ is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoea, which is a diplococcus, meaning that generally there are 2 spherical cells in close proximity.
Rates of infection of ___remain high among adolescents, African Americans, and young adults.
Women using the ___ ___ ___ have a greater risk of contracting gonorrhea because hormonal contraceptives cause the genital tract to be more receptive to pathogens.
birth control pill
With ___, the patient complains of pain on urination and has a milky urethral discharge 3 to 5 days after contact with the pathogen.
____ proctitis is an infection of the anus, with symptoms that include anal pain and blood or pus in the feces.
gonorrhea proctitis
___can be diagnosed through blood tests or by microscopic examination of fluids from lesions.
The 2 types of herpes simplex viruses are ___-1, and ___-. These herpes simplex viruses more often cause_____.
HSV-1, and HSV-2; genital herpes
Presently, there is no vaccine for ____ herpes.
genital herpes
HPV infection can be treated effectively by ___, ____, _____, or _____, depending on its severity.
surgery, freezing, application of an acid, or laser burning.
_____, caused by, is usually acquired from sewage-contaminated drinking water. Hepatitis A can also be sexually transmitted through oral/anal contact.
Hepatisis A
____, caused by HCV, is called the posttransfusion form of hepatitis. Infection of ____can lead to chronic hepatitis, liver cancer, and death.
Hepatitis C
____, usually caused by HEV, is usually seen in developing countries.
Hepatitis E
____virus is an AIDS virus that is spread in the same way as HIV, the cause of AIDS-through needle-sharing by drug abusers and through sexual contact between heterosexuals or between homosexual men.
Hepatitis B
____ is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which infects specific blood cells.
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
The ___are responsible for our immunity.

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