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KI 6

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____% of animal’s weight is water
60
____% in neonates' weight is water
80
____% on obese animal's weight is water
50
Body water content is estimated on _________
lean body mass
In the body, 60% of the water is in ______ and the 40% is in the ____
intracellular, extracellular
60% of the water in the cells means ____% of weight
40
40% of the water outside the cells means ____% of weight
40
The breakdown of the xtracellular body water is; 30% _______ fluid, 10% _____ fluid, and small amount of _______ fluid.
interstitial, intravascular, transcellular
the fluid in spaces between the tissue cells
interstitial fluid
Within blood vessels
intravascular
The fluids that are not inside cells, but are separated from plasma and interstitial fluid by cellular barriers
transcellular fluids
Examples of transcellular fluids are:
cerebrospinal, joint, pleural, intraocular, peritoneal fluids
CSF stands for
cerebrospinal fluid
As an example of fluid exchange between compartments, IV fluid travels to ______ fluids -> ______ fluids -> _____ fluids
intravascular, interstitial, intracellular
As an example of fluid exchange between compartments, fluid excapes from the body from ______ fluids first and then from ______
extracellular, intracellular
Solvent in biological systems is usually ______.
water
Solutes that dissociate into positively or negatively charged particles called ions.
electrolytes
Most abundant cation in extracellular fluid is _____
Na+
ECF stands for ______.
extracellular fluid
Most abundant anion in extracellular fluid are _____ and ______
Cl-, HCO3-
Most abundant cation in intracellular fluid are _____ and ______
K+, Mg2+
Most abundant anion in intracellular fluid are _____ and ______
H2PO4, proteins
Two measurement units of electrolytes
g/100mL=%, milliequivalent (mEq/L)
_____ measures weight of all the ions
g/100mL=%
_____ measures the tendency of one particle to combine with another particle. Measures chemical activity of the ion.
Milliequivalent (mEq/L)
Fluid compartments are separated by __________ that permits passage of H2O and some solutes.
selectively permeable membrane
Passage of solute from an area of higher solute concentration to one of lower solute concentration.
diffusion
If a solute doesn’t cross the cell membrane, it tends to ____ H2O.
attract
The passage of solvent from area of lesser solute concentration to one of greater solute concentration when separated by semi-permeable membrane.
osmosis
The ability of particles to attract H2O.
osmotic pressure
_______ and ______ measure osmotic pressure of a solution
Osmolality
Osmolarity
Measures the effect of the fluid on cellular volume
tonicity
_______ measures the concentration of solutes
Osmolality
_____ interstitial fluid = 300 mOsm/L
Isotonic
When _______ solution (<300 mOsm/L) is administered to the vascular space, it pushes fluid out to interstitial area
Hypotonic
When _______ solution (>300 mOsm/L) is administered to the vascular space, it draws fluid into intravascular
Hypertonic
______ are particles capable of generating osmotic pressure.
Effective osmoles
_____ and _____ provide most of the effective osmoles in commercial fluids.
Na+
glucose
The unit of measure of osmolality is the _____. Because we usually measure tiny amounts, we use the ______(___).
osmole
milliosmole (mOsm)
_______ Law: equilibrium exists at the capillary membrane when fluid leaving = fluid entering the ciculation
Starling's
The pressure exerted by a stationary liquid
hydrostatic pressure
A nondiffusible substance; a solute suspended in solution
colloid
Decreases in vascular colloid osmotic pressure
hypoproteinemia
relating to or caused by edema or any swelling
Oncotic
If vascular colloid osmotic pressure decreases, fluid accumulates in the interstitial tissues. Ths is called _____.
edema
The _________ can increase with systemic inflammation and burns, allowing plasma proteins to "leak" into the interstitium, pulling H2O with it. This causes ______.
membrane pore size
edema
In normal plasma, the plasma proteins are the major _____ present.
colloids
The component of the total osmotic pressure due to the colloids is known as _________ or as _________.
colloid osmotic pressure
oncotic pressure
an accumulation of an excessive amount of watery fluid in cells, tissues, or serous cavities.
edema
5 functions of body water
1. Transportation of nutrients, electrolytes and oxygen to the cells
2. Excretion of waste products
3. Regulation of body temperature
4. Lubrication of joints and membranes
5. Medium for food digestion
3 sources of water intake
1. water that is drunk
2. water ingested in food
3. water resulting from metabolism of food
4 sources of water loss
1. urine
2. feces
3. sweat (horses)
4. respiration (esp. dogs)
Fluid loss is also characterized as ________, those losses easily measured (such as urine), and ________, those losses not easily measured (such as fecal and respiratory losses).
sensible
insensible
Ongoing fluid losses
contemporary
_______ is said to occur when the animal has lost more fluid than it has taken in.
Dehydration
Decreased ______ and/or increased ______ cause dehydration.
fluid intake
fluid losses
Ex of decreased fluid intake
anorexia
errors in care
water spilled
contaminated
inaccessible
Ex of increased fluid losses
vomiting
diarrhea
polyuria
extensive burns
space shifts of body water
Initially in dehydration the main fluid loss is from the _______, and the body is relatively successful in preserving ______ volume.
interstitial space
intravascular
When the loss of water exists on a continuum, and significant dehydration will lead to loss of intravscular volume causing alterted perfusion to the tissues, this is called ________.
shock
Causes of shock
hemorrhage
infection
drug reaction
trauma
poisoning
myocardial disease
severe dehydration
5 indications for fluid therapy
1. Resuscitation for shock
2. Dehydration-as determined by results of patient’s history, physical examination, and results of basic laboratory tests.
3. To maintain normal hydration in animals losing excessive fluid quantities.
4. To replace electrolytes and nutrients.
5. To maintain an open intravenous line for medications.
Skin turgor is best done using the ______ or ____ skin.
thoracic
lumbar
Laboratory tests that can aid in evaluating hydration status
packed cell volume (PCV)
total plasma protein (TPP)
urine specific gravity
Dehydration generally results in an increase in the:
PCV
TPP
urine specific gravity.
Because ____ can make a dehydrated patient appear to have a normal PCV, always evaluate the ____ and run serial measurements while rehydrating.
anemia
TPP
____ and ______ are also elevated in dehydration.
BUN
Creatinine
Practical, inexpensive. Safest route as it allows normal physiologic processes to control the amount of fluid and the amount and type of electrolytes absorbed.
Oral
Do not use this route if vomiting, or if condition is acute or severe.
Oral
Useful when a patient’s needs are not severe. Generally between 50 and 200 ml can be infused at a site.
Subcutaneous (SQ)
Hypertonic or irritating fluids should not be given by this route.
Subcutaneous (SQ)
Absorption rate slow by this route. Large volumes can be administered.
Intraperitoneal (IP)
Route into femur, ilium, or humerus.
Intraosseous (IO)
Route sometimes used in very small animals or those with poor access to veins.
Intraosseous (IO)
This route allows rapid delivery of fluids and blood but requires more technical expertise.
Intraosseous (IO)
Preferred route when the loss has been great or the disorder severe. Allows quicker, more precise delivery of fluids than other routes.
Intravenous (IV)
_____ should be flushed with heparinized saline (5U/ml of 0.9% saline) every 6-12 hours and should be removed or replaced every 72 hours to minimize complications.
Catheters

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