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varios drugs y conceptos

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mantoux test
tuberculin (a derivative of tubercle bacillus) is injected intradermally.Ex. a red area appearing 1-3 days later signifies an exposure (past or present) to tubercle bacilli and the need for further testing
Phenylketonuria
PKU. genetic disorder deficiency phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) which is necessary to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine to the amino acid tyrosine. When PAH is deficient, phenylalanine accumulates and is converted into phenylpyruvate (also known as phenylketone), which is detected in the urine. Leads to mental retardation and seizures. Control by diet. Guthrie test help to detect
oxcarbazepine
anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug,used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder,derivative of carbamazepine, adding an extra oxygen atom on the dibenzazepine ring. This difference helps reduce the impact on the liver of metabolizing the drug, and also prevents the serious forms of anemia or agranulocytosis.it is thought to have the same mechanism as carbamazepine - sodium channel inhibition
amrinone
inodilators. It has inotropic (increases strength of contraction of myocardium) as well vasodilation properties.
breath test
ketoacidosis (metabolic acidosis which is caused by high concentrations of ketone bodies,in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate)
azathioprine
What immunosuppressive agent is converted to 6-mercaptopurine? Imuran, prodrug activated by enzymes to 6-thiol-MP blocking purine synthesis pathway suppressing B&T cells; used for autoimmune disorders (hemolytic anemia) and kidney transplantation **shouldn't be used with Allopurinol (blocks breakdown of drug by inhibiting xanthine oxidase)
sodium nitroprusside
Direct vasodilator drugs; acts by release of NO (nitric oxide), liberates NO primarily through a spontaneous nonenzymatic process; dilates both arteries and veins; possible cyanide toxicity; use IV for potent hemodynamic control in hypertensive emergencies and severe cardiac failure. IV b/c short half life.
simethicone
oral anti-foaming agent used to reduce bloating, discomfort and pain caused by excess gas in the stomach or intestinal tract. It is a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane and silica gel.Suspension.
conjugated-chromoprotein
hemoglobin
ciprofloxacin
fluoroquinolone antibiotics form quelation complex with aluminium, magnesium, calcium, ferrous sulfate, iron, and zinc products (antiacids). Also cause cytochrome P450 hepatic inhibition: toxicity other drugs is enhanced.
topiramate
anticonvulsant, epilepsy but now also migraines., Partial and tonic-clonic. Blocks Na channels and increases GABA action.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
No ribosomes,synthesizes lipids, fatty acids, and steroids. enzymes detoxify drugs
COX or Cyclooxygenase
enzyme responsible formation of biological mediators (prostanoids, prostaglandins).Known also as prostaglandin synthase" and "prostaglandin synthetase".inhibition non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
mercaptopurine
immunosuppressive agent. a drug (trade name Purinethol) that interferes with the metabolism of purine and is used to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia
hemophilia
congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding. deficiency coagulation factor VIII known as antihemophilic factor (AHF).
conjugated-glucoprotein
mucins
COX-1
"good" COX; provides gastric protection, maintenance of renal function, platelet aggregation; inhibition causes gastric ulceration, bleeding tendencies, and renal impairment
NPH insulin
Neutral Protamine Hagedorn.suspension of crystalline zinc insulin combined with the positively charged polypeptide, protamine. When injected subcutaneously, it has an intermediate duration of action, meaning longer than that of regular insulin, but shorter than ultralente, glargine or detemir
Dihydrotachysterol (DHT)
synthetic vitamin D analog activated in the liver that does not require renal hydroxylation like vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).Rapid onset of action (2 hours), a shorter half-life, and a greater effect on mineralization of bone salts than does vitamin D. Useful in tetany, idiopathic tetany and hypothyroidism.
barium sulfate
radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging and other diagnostic procedures
simple, conjugated and derived protein
clasification of proteins
losartan
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin recethey block the activation of angiotensin II AT1 receptors.ptor blockers (ARBs), AT1-receptor antagonists or sartans,hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage due to diabetes) and congestive heart failure.
conjugated-lipoprotein
lecithin
Doxazosin
a1 selective blocker; treats hypertension, and urinary retention in BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia.); can cause 1st dose syncope (fainting) &tachicardia.Cardura and Carduran
MAO
enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.vital role inactivation of neurotransmitters.unusually high or low levels of MAOs in the body have been associated with depression, substance abuse, attention deficit disorder.Inhibitors is major classes of drug for the treatment of depression
pulmonary toxicity,pulmonary fibrosis
caused by bleomycin, amiodarone, nitrofurantoin
conjugated-phosphoprotein
casein, ovovitellin
pyrethrin
contact poison that disturbs parasites' nervous system.Scabicide and pediculicide agent
DNA hydrolase
hydrolyses the various substances
lindane
neurotoxin that interferes with GABA neurotransmitter function.Scabicide and pediculicide agent.Second line treatment.
riboflavin
B2, helps keep skin, tongue, and lips normal, helps scaly areas around the mouth
DMA isomerase
catalizes variuos isomerizations
Lamotrigine
anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder.first medication since lithium to be granted approval by FDA for "mania-depression" episodes.
Rofecoxib
selective COX-2. Taken off the market 2004 because heart attack, thrombosis and stroke through a relative increase in thromboxane.
nystatin
disrupts fungal membrane permeability by binding to ergosterol, Mycostatin and Nystan, used to treat oral candidiasis and diaper rash
methyldopa
centrally-acting adrenergic antihypertensive medication,Not often used but continues to have a role in otherwise difficult to treat hypertension and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Central alpha-2 receptor agonist then alpha-2 receptor-negative feedback to sympathetic nervous system (SNS) (centrally and peripherally), allowing peripheral sympathetic nervous system (PSNS) tone to decrease. Such activity leads to a decrease in total peripheral resistance (TPR) and cardiac output., aldomet
levigation
adition of agent into solid to blend to make paste,i.e. addition of glycerine to powder of sulfa
Reye's syndrome
potentially fatal disease that causes detrimental effects especially the brain and liver. Associated with aspirin consumption by children with viral diseases such as chickenpox.
DNA topoisomerase
removes supercoil in the helix of DNA
methenamine
Hexamine,suspension.prophylaxis (prevention) of urinary tract infections, where it is hydrolysed in the acidic pH of the urine to form formaldehyde
golgi aparatus
sometimes referred to as the cell packaging plant, stack of membranous sacks(cisternae), well developed in secretory glands and located on the side of the cell from which it secretes its substances, lisosomes are made here.
metolazone
in the same groups with thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide). Also chlortalidone in this group.Hipokalemia, electrolyte loss.
pyrimethamine
protozoal infections. It is commonly used as an antimalarial drug
Ingram's regimen
psoriasis, anthralin (DNA inhibition & proliferation) + UVB
arrhenius equation
describe effect of temperature on the rate of a degradation rx. Every 10 C , rate of rx increases 2 to 3 times.
risperidone
(Risperdal) Antipsychotics but also mood stabilizers (antidepressant) are also effective in treating anxiety, Atypical antipsychotics, Elevation of prolactin, extrapyramidal side effects
Tetany
painful muscle cramps that result from hypocalcemia,associated with calcium deficiency (hypoparathyroidism) or vitamin D deficiency or alkalosis
amphetamine
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. AE central system stimulation and insomnia.
vancomycin
life-threatening infections by Gram-positive bacteria unresponsive to other less toxic antibiotics. Should not be used to treat methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.But useful methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Plus oral p.colitis due to antibio..Ototoxicity & nephrotoxicity.Red Neck syndrome by IV infusion
COX-2
"bad" COX; mediates inflammation, pain perception, mediates fever; inhibition decreases inflammation, pain and fever. Celecoxib is selective for this.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
A large system of folded membranes within a eukaryotic cell that has ribosomes bound to it, giving a rough appearnce. ribosomes synthesize proteins that will ultimately be secreted from the cell, incorporated into the plasma membrane, or transported to the Golgi apparatus or lysosome.
endocarditis
Staphylococcus aureus with oxacillin or vancomycin- Fungal, amphotericin B (often used intravenously for systemic fungal infections)-Most common is Streptococcus viridans, which is highly sensitive to Penicillin.
DNA polysomerase
helps in the synthesis of DNA
permethrine
eradicate parasites such as head lice and mites responsible for scabies, neurotoxin
Prazosin
MINIPRESS.a1 selective blocker; treats hypertension, and urinary retention in BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia.); can cause 1st dose syncope (fainting) &tachicardia.
cyclobenzaprine
treatment of muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal condition. Not effective for spasm due to central nervous disease
cyanocobalamin
a B vitamin that is used to treat pernicious anemia, B12.
bromocriptine
Dopaminergic; direct dopamine agonist,treatment parkinson, AE lung toxicity.
conjugated-metalloprotein
tyrosinase, arginase, xanthine oxydase
acarbose
What oral hypoglycemic agent inhibits α-glucosidase in the brush border of the small intestine?
Folic acid
folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9.Leafy vegetables such as spinach, turnip greens, lettuces.is needed to synthesize DNA bases , erythropoiesis.Lack causes megaloblastic anemia which is characterized by large immature RBCs.
pyrimethamine
protozoal infections. It is commonly used as an antimalarial drug .interferes with folic acid synthesis by inhibiting the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. Folic acid is needed for DNA and RNA synthesis in many species, including protozoa.
cholestatic jaundice
caused by chlorpromazine, chlorpropamide, erythromycin estolate, trazodone, certain tricyclics antidepressant, sulindac and methyldopa
DNA transferase
catalyses the transfer of various groups, i.e. phosphate and amino
miglitol
alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. oral anti-diabetic drug that acts by inhibiting the ability of the patient to breakdown complex carbohydrates into glucose
sibutramine
used for obesity. A symphatomimetic serotonin and NE reuptake inhibitor.Meridia. Related to amphetamines.
conjugated-nucleoprotein
nuclein
anticonvulsants
cause oral hormonal contraceptives to be less effective
DNA lyase
catalyzes the removal of various functional groups other than process of hydrolisis.
sweat test
a test for cystic fibrosis.3 to 5 times more () ion chloride.
dantrolene
controls spasticity from motor neuron disorder.ie spinal cord injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis. AE is hepatoxicity.
Cytochrome P450
CYP, P450, infrequently CYP450.also CYP1A2. present in many other tissues of the body including the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, and play important roles in hormone synthesis and breakdown (including estrogen and testosterone synthesis and metabolism), cholesterol synthesis, and vitamin D metabolism. Hepatic are the most widely studied of the enzymes. also present in the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)
DNA ligase
helps in formation of phosphodiester bond
PUVA treatment
psoralen+UVA,psoriasis,eczema and vitiligo.
probenecid
drug that reduces the level of uric acid in the blood, For chronic gout; blocks tubular secretion of penicillin; blocks tubular reabsorption of uric acid; occasionally used to increase serum levels of antibiotics, inhibits secretion of weak acids
Mitochondria
respiration, the cells powerhouse, turning food into energy, it's where cellular respiration takes place. (Harvesting chemical energy).Kreb's cycle and ATP
Pernicious anemia
form of megaloblastic anemia due to vit B-12 deficiency, caused by impaired absorption due to the absence of intrinsic factor.body's inability to produce DNA enough for blood cell synthesis, interruption of a biochemical pathway dependent on vitamin B-12 and/or folic acid as cofactors
simple
albumin, globulins, prolamines, glutelins, albuminoids
ribosomes
A small, ball-like structure found in the cytoplasm &/or Rough E.R., contains RNA,, the sites of translation are __________, complex particles that facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains. Origin: rRNA
Cystic fibrosis
the most common congenital disease.Ex. the child's lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; there is no cure.
tamsulosin
selective alpha blocker used in the symptomatic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
acetylcysteine
or Mucomyst, expectorant, decrease viscosity secretions. antidote for Acetaminophen.
protamine
suspension.When mixed with insulin, it slow down the onset and increase the duration of insulin action.
lysosome
A membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.Origin: golgi apparatus.
milrinone
inodilators. It has inotropic (increases strength of contraction of myocardium) as well vasodilation properties.
Phosphodiesterase
enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond referring mainly to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases
G6PD
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. necessary to maintain reduce glutathione level (GSH) thus prevent hemolysis.Deficiency causes severe hemolytic anemia with concomitant use of oxidants: primaquine,sulfonamide, nitrofuran, nalixidic acid, probenecid, chloroquine and dimercaptol. Sicke cell anemia or Bethalassemia.
Goeckerman's regimen
Coal tar (thousands of hydrocarbons, enzyme inhibition & antimitotic) + UVB
red neck syndrome
associated to vancomycin (Oral for p.colitis induced by antibiotics, IV methicillin resistant), Flushing upper body, pain and muscle spasm of chest and neck.
Terazosin
(Hytrin). An alpha-1 blocker that relaxes smooth muscles of arteries, prostate, and bladder neck. Lowers b/p & allows those w/enlarge prostates to pee.

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