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8-Science-Exam Review

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Is the Chilean miner's predicament an open system? If so, how?
Yes, open. because they were able to get food/reasources and have contact with the outside world
Examples of INPUT/OUTPUT for Chilean Miners
INPUT: food, videos, letters, supplies, resources, toiletries, support

OUTPUT: letters/video back, trash, eventually themselves

Greatest Trigger of Change?
Plow
What are 3 other triggers (sequentially) that were a direct result of the plow?
1. surplus food
2. pottery
3. writing

What is a Trigger of Change?
One action that directly causes a string of other actions
What are the charcteristics of a scientist according to the "Amateur Scientist" article?
like a kid, spontaneous, attention to detail, patient, curious
How to ants and aphids have a symbiotic relationship?
Aphids excrete honeydew, a sweet substance that ants like to eat.
ants protect/carry aphid eggs during the winter
CARDIOVASCULAR TEST:
Where does the blood go from the aorta?
through the arteries and to the rest of the body
CARDIOVASCULAR TEST:
Which blood vessels bring the blood to the right atrium?
Superior vena cava & Inferior vena cava
CARDIOVASCULAR TEST:
How would you describe the blood in the left chambers?
Oxygenated
CARDIOVASCULAR TEST:
What blood vessels deliver blood to the brain?
carotid arteries
CARDIOVASCULAR TEST:
Blood in the pulmonary veins is oxygenated or deoxygenated?
oxygenated
What is the composition/function (what kind of blood) of:
Arteries
Thick, muscular walls
carries oxygenated nutrient rich blood throughout the body
What is the composition/function (what kind of blood) of:
Veins
not as thick as arteries
carries deoxygenated blood
What kind of blood does the pumonary vein carry?
oxygenated
What kind of blood does the pulmonary artery carry?
deoxygenated
Do veins carry blood to or away from the heart?
to or towards the heart
Do arteries carry blood to or from the heart?
from, or away from the heart
What do capillary beds do?
They are responsbile for the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste between the blood and the body cell
CARDIOVASCULAR TEST:
Explain the lymphatic system (system within the cirulatory system)
lymph nodes produce lymphocytes to fight infections and keep tissue moist
Central nervous system:
cerebrum/cerebral cortex:
responsbile for things like perception, imagination, thought, judgement, and decision making
Central nervous system:
Cerebellum?
balance, equilibrium, coordination of voluntary motor movement
Central nervous system:
Brain Stem?
Connects brain to spinal cord and is in charge of all functions your body needs to stay alive (automatic activities) like breathing, digestion, circulating blood etc.
Central nervous system:
Spinal cord?
Pathway for communiction between the brain and the body's nerves
Central nervous system:
Meninges
nourishes brain, provides cushioning effect for the CNS
What is the opticla nerve in charge of?
seeing
what is the auditory nerve in charge of?
hearing
What is the olfactory nerve in charge of?
smelling?
What are the optical nerve, auditory nerve, and olfactory nerve?
crainial nervves
Peripheral nervous system:
sensory (afferecnt) nuerons?
take in information from the outside world and communicates information about heat, cold, pressure, pain etc.
Peripheral nervous system:
Motor (efferent) nuerons:
somatic (voluntary)?

controls essential voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking, swallowing etc
Peripheral nervous system:
Motor (efferent) nuerons:
Autonomic (involuntary)?

controls involuntary muscle activity such as: the senses, blinking, breathing, etc.
What is a reflex arc?
What is the endocrine system?
glands that produce hormones to regulate things in your body
What do these do (within the endocrine system)
Adrenal Gland
Pituitary Gland
Thyroid Gland


releases adrenalene in crisis 'fight or flight' reaction
controls growth
regulates metabolism

What are hormones?
chemicals in your body that activities in organs (secreted directly into the blood stream)
What is a system?
is a set of interacting or interdependent entities forming an integrated whole.

What is a closed system?
a system which exchanges neither energy, matter, or information with its environment.



What is an open system?
An open system is a system which continuously interacts with its environment. The interaction can take the form of information, energy, or material transfers into or out of the system boundary.
Where does energy come from? Where does it go?
What is the law of conservation of mass?
Matter (mass) can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can change from one form into another. The atoms re-arrange themselves in different combinations
What is the law of conservation of energy?
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed it can change from one form into another often the change of energy is accompanied by a loss of energy to the system, and is released as heat
What is a Joule?
the mechanical unit of energy
What is a calorie?
1 calorie is the heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of H2O by 1oCelcius also it's the energy unit for food
What is a Kilocalorie? (C)
what does it measure?
1,000 calories (c)
food (on the labels)
From the video "Change" What was the input/output for the racers? How many calories are in a Jelly Donut?
Input:
4 gallons H2O
32 Jelly Donuts

Output:
Sweat for cooling
2 JD: bike’s parts/friction
6 JD: Air resistance
24 JD: Racer expends on his muscles->heat

250 calories in a Jelly Donut









What is cellular respiration? Where does it take place?
the process by which energy is released as glucose in living cells
Takes place in most living cells


What is the equation for cellular respiration?
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 -> energy + 6CO2 +6H2O
What is homeostasis?
Equilibrium of a living system
Why does the queen of the trailhead colony shed her wings?
to move more quickly to avoid ants, spiders, and other predators
Whta does the Trailhead queen do to her eggs to protect them?
She laid them and licked them continuously with antibiotic saliva to protect them from being overgrown with bacter and fungi from the surrounding soil
Since she is the sole individual in the nest, how does the Trailhead queen feed her hatched eggs?
She fed them secreted food made from her fact, created by the metabolism of her useless wing muscles
When they were no longer inhibited by the Queens pheromones, what happened?
The soldiers began to release hormones that stimulated growth in their ovaries
What is the life cycle of an ant colony? How many years until colony reaches full size?
(colony reaches full size in 20 years)
1. mating stage: virgin queen take a nuptial flight to mate with a male drone
2. Larva stage: non-virgin queen sheds her wings and crawls into a cave/hole for safety
3. Founding stage: first generation is weak and small, but the Queen continually produces offspring that are stronger becuse they are fed on scavenged food rather that regurgutated food as the first generation was.
4. stability of the colony



What is the life cycle of an ant? How long does this life cycle last?
(Over the course of 3 years)
1. egg
2. larva
3. pupa
4. young ant
5. adult ant
6. death





What is the social structure/caste system in an ant colony?
surveyor-workers: survey colony and collect food
nursey-workers: take care of unborn ants of the queen
cemetary workers: removes dead ant bodies and puts them in a pile (often shunned because oleic acid smells like death)
*workers have small and agile bodies*
soldiers: fight of invaders, soldierqueens take over if queen dies, even though they can only produce male drones
*soldiers have large and protective bodies*
Queen: continually produces offspring to replish ant casualties. Without her, the colony fails because too many ants would die without being replaced
Male drones: offspring of unfertilized eggs, can't do much of anything






What is the input/output in an ant colony?
Input: Oxygen, food, water
Output: Energy for⬦. Digging, eating, walking, carrying (food, ants, sand), defending themselves/attacking enemies, communicating with pheromones, CO2


Meaning of super organism as it relates to an ant colony?
Ant ant colon is often called a superorganism because the Queen's presence, recognized by her royal pheromones, keeps the colony going and functioning as a whole. The scout surbey he territory, the soldiers fight off attackers, the workers work for the benefit of the colony. Together, the ants do something that none of them could do alone. They are constantly putting the clony fist and risking their lives, which they wouldn't do withtout the Queen's constant population replenishment. With every ant working together, the colony forms a superorganism that scavenges, attacks, surveys, works gets rid of the dead, and replenishes the colony; forming a turly dynamic system and superorganism
What are the chemicals signals that ants give off called?
What is the chemical that signals death?
Pheromones, Oleic acid
What is static equilibrium?
What is an example?
A static equilibrium is when parts of a system really are not changing at all.
example: rock resting on the ground, person sitting in chair. (gravity pushes down, chair pushes up)
What is a dynamic equilibrium?
What is an example?
A system in dynamic equilibrium is always changing, yet certian characteristics of the system stay the same.
example: person walking down an up escalator
What are some examples of kinds of energy?
 Kinetic
 Potential (stored)
• Gravitational (due to position)
• Chemical Potential (food, gas, batteries)
 Heat/Thermal
 Light
 Sound
 Mechanical
 Electrical









What is positive feedback?
What is an example?
⬢in a system, those changes which serve to increase the effect.
Thunderstorm, viral video, etc
What is negative feedback?
what is an example?
⬢when the action of a system leads to a reduction in that action. For example, wave erosion of a cliff may undercut it and cause it to collapse. The fallen debris now protects the cliff so less erosion takes place.

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