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Sociology 420 Test 2


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Status Offenses
Acts that are illegal only for minors
Marked Status/Stigmatized
Being acknowledged not just by occupation, but by gender, race or sexuality. For example: the black doctor, the female student, the Asian politician, the gay or lesbian lawyer.
Not having a master status: being a woman, homosexual, working or poor class, being black, Latino, Asian, Middle Eastern or Indian
Having the highest master status in society: the white,middle class, heterosexual male
Racial Profiling
singling out memebers of a particular racial group for heightened police sureveillance
Unmarked Status/Nonstigmatized
Being acknowledged by occupation only. An example is a doctor, lawyer, politician, student etc.
the belief that one has the right to be respected, acknowledged, protected and rewarded.
trying to reduce the impact of a known or visible stigma. Example: employees that are able to cover (or take the attention) off of their stigma can cover their race, sexuality or sexual orientation. Similar to passing for a mixed race person, and staying in the closet for a homosexual person.
Discredited and Discreditable
The discredited are those whose stigma is known or apparent to others. The discreditable are those whose stigma is unknown or invisible to others; they are not yet discredited (206-212).
Double Consciousness
A concept first offered by W.E.B. Du Boiz to describe seeing oneself (or members of one's group) through the eyes of a critical, dominant group member.
Looping and Rereading
Interpreting (and usually dismissing) someone's words or actions because of the status that person occupies. (pg. 203)Example: a patient says "the staff here are being unfair to me." The staff resond "Of course he would think that-he's crazy."
Marked and Unmarked Statuses
a marked status is one identified as "special" in some way, for example, a blind musician or a woman doctor. Unmarked statuses, such as a musican or doctor, do not have such qualifiers.
Not revealing a stigmatized identity
the advantages provided by some statuses.
Social Mobility
movement through the stratification system as a result of change in occupation, wealth or income. The patterns are more complex today than ever as a person can now move down in occupational status, but simultanteously move up in income. Example:Embourgeoisement (the plummer (thought to be lower class (blue collar) but is paid more than the bank teller (white collar)).
Multiplier Effect
Example: If a new job is created near the top of the occupational hierarchy, it may be filled by someone from the middle whereby that person's occupational position is assumed by someone from below. Consequently, a new opening can create two or more moves in a sequential progression. (When middle class person gets a new job in the upper class, the working class person can obtain the previous job of the middle class person.
Horizontlal Mobility
movement from one position to another of substantially equal rank in the occupational structure. Example: moving to another job. The salary doesn't change, but the location or distance of the job does). Same occupation, different location.
Vertical Mobility
Movement from one occupational position to another of higher or lower rank. Patterns of vertical mobility are exceptionally important in studying stratification as the patterns reveal a great deal about the class system and its degree of openness, especially regarding the relative importance of achievement versus ascription. The greater the degree of vertical mobility, the more open the class system, implying that inequality is based more on achievement than ascription and the closer society is to the value of equal opportunity. Example: Japanese people have to have more credentials to meet up to the expectations of whites.
Intergenerational Mobility
the study of mobility by comparing the occupational position of the parents with that of their offspring--focusing on movement that occurs across generations. (One generation making sacrifices for another generations so that they will have more opportunities. This is the traditional path of mobility.
Types of Mobility
-Social -Horizontal -Vertical -Intergenerational -Intragenerational -Structural -Cirulation
Intragenerational Mobility
The study of mobility by comparing the occupational position of a person over an extenede period of time--focusing on movement within an individual's own lifetime [We want to know if the occupational status of a person's first job is higher than, lower than, or equal to that of the person's second, third or fourth job].Example: The CEO of IHOP (International House of Pancakes)started his early career by waitressing. An athlete or actor started from nothing, living in their car to making their big break. Someone saw talent in them. They started off small and became really big all at one time.
Structural Mobility
the amount of mobility accounted for by changes in the occupational structure. The creation of jobs at the top versus the bottom of the occupational hierarchy due to technology, proletarianization, embourgeoisement, corporate downsizing, economic globalization etc. Through out substantial periods in American history, the US economy has been characterized by growth meaning there has been significant opportunities for upward mobility. Importantly, fertility and immigration rates/trends become very significant factors in understanding patterns of structural mobility.
Circulation Mobility
the amount of mobility explained by exchange movement up and down the occupational structure. This is often referred to as positional mobility as it refers to movement through the stratification system that results from individual effor, accomplishments, or luck--in other words, it is not the result of changes in the occupational structure. (Being in the right place at the right time.
Fertility Mobility
Who consumes more? Who has more children? The higher the social class, the lower the fertility rate.
The Family Claim
Women face the reality that having children effects their finances.
R&T Reading 24:(Rodriguez) Latinos and the U.S. Race Structure
bad hair was tightly curled dark hair, good hair was light colored and straight. Favoriticism of Eurocentric characteristics. Eurocentrism grew out of our history of indigenous conquest and slavery. Skin color, physical features, accents, surnames, residence, etc. all were taken into consideration in the U.S. -The Census Bureau refers to individuals as "consistent." meaning they consistently answer in the same way when asked about their race. Often, but not always, they are at one or the other end of the color spectrum. Many latinos are assigned a multiplicity of "racial" classifications, sometimes in one day! Some people mistake latinos for itlaian, Spanish, Puerto Rican or Black. Dominican, Honduran, Puerto Rican (Boricua) people are categorized as being black. Spaniards or Columbian etc. are categorized as being white. -Racial mixture is viewed negatively and positively in the Latino community. Racial Mixture or (mestizaje) can be beneficial to darker skinned latinos wanting their children to be associated with whiteness. Racial mixing is bad when a lighter skinned latino family is trying to maintain their status in society by not mixing with darker skinned Latinos. Lugones view Mestizaje- as a way of resisting a world in which purity and separation are emphasized, and on'es identities are controlled: Mestizaje defies control through simultanieously asserting the impure, curdled multiple stat and rejecting fragmentation into pure parts. -The Hegenmonic view is prominent in the upper classes because they deny mixture and claim to be pure European ancestry (Spaniards). -In indigenous sectors of Latin America rarely claim a European Ancestry (Columbians, Venezuela, Honduras and Panama) U.S. Standard Terms: Afro-Latinos and White Hispanics. -Many Latinos understand race or raza to mean national origin, nationality, ethnicity or culture. The U.S. racialization and Americanization processes affects all groups' sense of who they are, and how they are seen in regard to color and race.
Racial and Ethnic Identity Development
The understanding shared by members of thenic groups, of what it means to be black white, Chicano, Irish, Jewish and so on.
The meaning of the term RACIST to white people
Among white people, being color conscious is often considered to be a sign of being racist.
R &T Reading 25 (Tatum): "Why are all the black students sitting at the table together?"
1) Diffuse, a state in which there has been a little exploration or active consideration of a particular domain, and no psychological commitment; 2) Foreclosed, a state in which a commitment has been made to particular roles or belief systems, often those selected by parents, without actively considering alternatives; 3) Moratorium,a state of active exploration of roles and beliefs in which no commitment has yet been made; 4) Achieved; a state of strong personal commitment a period of high exploration.
Individuals assimilate into the dominant group by de-emphasizing characteristics that might identify them as members of the subordinate group.
Oppositional identity for African Americans
-Black teenagers were always told being smart was not associated with being black. Black people who had academic success were hated by other black people because they thought they were "acting white." Academic success is associated with being white.
Someone who sees his or her own achievements as advancing the cause of the racial group.
Social Capital
Focuses attention on deferential access to opportunities through social connections.
Cultural Capital
Refers to the knowledge of the norms, values beliefs and ways of life of the groups to which people belong.

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