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Infection & Blood Borne Pathogens


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The contamination of a person or object by another.
cross contamination
An infection acquired within a health care setting.
A microbe capable of causing a disease.
The invasion of the human body or tissue by pathogenic microorganisms that reproduce and multiply, causing disease.
Some results from an infection:
1. delayed healing
2. patient discomfort
3. patient and family distress
4. patient dependency on health care professionals
5. infections can lead to disabilities, deformities, and possibly death
6. infections cost $$
An overgrowth of microbes.
Modes of transmission:
1. direct contact
2. indirect contact
3. airborne spread (droplet)
4. common vehicle spread (infection carried in blood products)
Factors that increase the risk of infection postoperatively for patients:
1. age
2. obesity
3. general health
4. preexisting illness
5. preoperative hospitalization
An infection of the surgical wound that was acquired during the course of the surgical procedure.
Surgical Site Infection (SSI)
Protein substance present in blood plasma that protects against specific pathogenic organisms.
These are formed by antigenic stimulation.
A substance which when introduced into the blood causes antibody formation.
A local infection that acts as a center from which germs spread to other parts of the body and start other infections.
focal infection
Insusceptible to a particular disease or infection. Can either be naturally acquired or artificially acquired.
Occurs when pathogenic microorganisms enter body tissue and multiply there, causing injury to the tissue cells either through action of the bacteria or the toxins produced by them.
The ability of bacteria to enter host tissues, multiply there and spread.
Organisms capable of producing disease only when given a special opportunity to enter the body tissues through injury to skin or mucous membranes or when natural resistance to infection is abnormally low.
Organisms which live in or on bodies of living plants or animals.
Ability of microorganisms to cause disease or to result in the production of progressive lesions.
The process by which leukocytes engulf and destroy bacteria.

"cell eating"
The specific route or pathway by which a particular organism normally enters the body and causes infection.
White or yellow creamy material present in infectious process; consist of dead leukocytes, dead bacteria, tissue cells, fluid from tissue and blood.
The microorganisms that are regularly found in specific body areas and that live harmlessly there: skin; respiratory tract; gastrointestinal tract; etc.
resident flora
The natural ability of some people to ward off infection, even though they are exposed. Also, the ability of some bacteria to avoid destructive action by certain drugs.
Presence of pathogenic organisms in blood or tissue.
When bacterial poisons get past walled off areas around primary infection sites and circulate freely in the blood stream.
The ability of bacteria to produce toxic substances.
Non-pathogenic or only potentially pathogenic microorganisms which inhabit the skin and mucous membranes; may be a reflection of the environment.
transient flora
The ability of an organism to establish, maintain and extend and infection an to damage the body.
Smile, Kelly, we're almost done!
Pathogenic organisms are introduced into body tissues by:
1. during surgery (droplet, contaminated supplies)
2. from trauma (lacerations, puncture wounds)
3. from contaminated infusion equipment (needles, tubing)
Conditions within a wound that favors growth of organisms:
1. food (blood)
2. moisture (serum)
3. warmth (body temperature)
Destroys red blood cells.
Causes nausea and vomiting if ingested with staphylococcal infested food.
Necrosis of skin tissue; coagulation of oxalated or citrated plasma; hemolysis or red blood cells.
Destroys penicillin.
Natural body defenses against infection:
1. unbroken skin
2. mucous membranes
3. phagocytosis
4. inflammation
5. lymphatic system
Immunizations stimulate antigen-antibody reaction without the full-blown disease in order to protect an individual againt the dangers of the bacterial infection.
artificial immunity
Improper surgical technique by the *surgeon* may cause predisposition to infections because of:
1. incision too small
2. rough handling of tissue
3. prolong exposure
4. separation of tissue layers
5. inadequate hemostasis

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