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4/24 intro parasites part 1


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5 Main types of Parasites
Protozoa, Trematode, Cestode, Nematode, Arthropod
What type of parasite are Naegleria fowleri and Entamoeba histolytica?
Naegleria fowleri
free living amoeba, highly fatal infections, may cause rapidly progressing fatal meningoencephalitis
Entamoeba histolytica
"true parasite", highly pathogenic, invasive disease, worldwide
Intestinal and extraintestinal diseases caused by E. histolytica
Diarrhea, Toxic megacolon, Liver brain lung abscesses
What type of parasite is Balantidium coli?
Ciliate(Protozoa), intestinal parasite
Clinical manifestation of Balantidium coli
often asymptomatic, may cause diarhea
Animal reservoir of Balantidium coli?
distribution of balantidium coli
Clinical manifestation of Toxoplasmosis(Bith and Long Term)
Birth: Hydorcephalis, intracranial calcification, chorioretinitis; Long term: Deafness, visual impairment, learning disability
What type of organism is Toxoplasma gondii?
How may an adult be infected with toxoplama?
fecal oocyst from cat, or tissue cyst from pig
What type of organism is Babesia
where is babesia found
where does babesia replicate(in body)
CM of Babesia(Babesiosis)
initial fever, chill, malaise; later hemolytic anemia and renal failure
What transmits Plasmodium
Plamodium is the causitive agent of⬦
where does plamodium replicate
what is the 6th most important infectious disease in the WORLD??
Three major forms of Leishmaniasis
Visceral, Cutaneous, Mucocutaneous
L. donovani
Visceral Leishmaniasis
L. tropici and L. mexicana
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
L. braziliensis, L. peruviana
Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis
What is the vector for Leishmania⬦
What classification is Leishmania
flagellated protozoa
where are most leishmania cases located
Rural and urban areas
what is the reservoir
in rural area: canines and rodents; in urban area: human
Geographic distribution?
see map in slides⬦but appears mainly N. Africa, Central and South America, eurasia
Visceral Leishmaniasis
90% cases occur in Inida, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, Brazil
CM of Visceral Leishmaniasis
Fever, prostration, hepatosplenomegaly, weight loss, anemia, ascities; liver failure; high mortality rate
Geographic distribution of mucocutaneous L.
South Texas, SE Mexico, Central and South America
CM of Mucocutaneous Leishmanias
lesion begins at bite site, then invades nearby mucocutaneous areas; may lead to destruction of mucous membrane of nose, mouth, throat
Geographic distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Mediterranian, Equitorial Africa, Middle East, India, China
CM of cutaneous leishmaniasis
Small papule at bite site, will progress to a large ulcer, upon healing leaves a large scar
Pathogenesis of Leishmania
sandfly injects promastigote into skin, then these are phagocytized by macrophages, and tranformed into amastogotes in the phagolysosome(these are resistant to lysosomal enzyme, and grows in macrophage, then infected cell dies releases amastigote which infects other macrophages
Diagnosis of Leishmania
Serology, ID amastigote forms in tissue
Treatment of Leishmania
Antimony compounds(from the CDC)
Another parasitic flagellate that is found worldwide, causes diarrhea and malabosorption
Giardia lamblia
another parasitic flagellate that is found worldwide, is spread sexually and causes genital infections
Trichomonas vaginalis
another parasitic flagellate that is a blood parasite that causes African sleeping sickness
Trypanosoma brucei
What kind of organism are Schistosomes
Parasitic Trematode, aka..Fluke, 1cm, complex lifecycle
How may an adult be infected with Schistosomes?
What kind of diseases are associated with schistosomes
What is the intermediate host of schistosomes/
snails(freshwater usually)
Fasciola hepatica
liver fluke
CM of fasciola hepatica
chronic intermittent biliary obstruction and inflammation
Schistosoma sp.
blood fluke
CM of schistosoma sp.
abdominal pain, hepatosplenomegaly, bloody diarrhea
Paragonimus westerinani
oriental lung fluke
CM of Paragonimus westerinani
chronic cough, hemoptysis
S. haematobium
visible spine, urinary schistosomiasis
S. mansoni
visible spine, intestinal
S. japonicum
spine not visible, Asian intestinal schistosomiasis
Acute CM of Schistosomiasis
flu-like illness due to immune response bc of egg production
Chronic CM of Schistosomiasis
due to immune response to eggs, walling off lesion interferes with organ function
Treatment of Schistosome
5 methods to control schistosomes
1) Educatie about acquiring disease 2) improve sanitation 3)Bio-control agents 4)molluscidies 5)Drain marsh areas
4 examples of parasitic cestodes
Taenia saginata(beef ), Taenia solium(pork), Echinoccous granulosis, Echniococcus multilocularis
cestode morphology
scolex, proglottids, egg
taenia solium(pork tapeworm) intermediate host
taenia solium definitive host
invasion of larval form into CNS(oncospheres arise from ingested eggs migrating through intestine wall, enxyst in tissue in body, mature in 3mths)
CM of neurcysticercosis
seizures, hydrocephalus, cranial nerve damage, visual impairment
tapeworm, up to 1meter long, complex life cycle
Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis
CT & MRI, serologic test for anti-cysticercal AB
Treatment of neurocysticercosis
"Praziquantel, albendazole(according to wikkepedia this blocks parasitic glucose uptake by interrupting microtubular function)

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