This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

linguistics 2


undefined, object
copy deck
Websters Third International Dictonary of the English Language

-controverisial words; banned from some schools
The Oxford English Dictionary

-called the greatest lexicographic work ever produced.
Noah Webster
(2 volumes in 1828)
-worked w/ spelling and simplified it in America
-people will believe what is in writing
John Walker
prescribed pronunciation in 1791.
Dr. Samuel Johnson
Wrote "Dictionary of the English Language" in 1755; first descriptive dictionary.
A speakers mental dictionary
the editing or making of a dictionary
the written form of a language; spelling
the study of the structure of words; includes the rules of word formation
stephen Jay Gould
biologist who believes language is an "all or nothing" system; has original properties.
Norm Chomsky
Harvard professor who believes there is already a grammar inside us all; a universal grammar that fits all languages.
Charles Darwin
"as the voice was used more and more the vocal organs would have been strenthened and perfected though the principle of the inherited effects of use."
derivational morpheme
morpheme added to a stem or root to form a new stem or word, possibly but not necessarily, resulting in a chne in syntactic category (e.g. -er)
free morpheme bound
a single morpheme that constitutes a word. Must be attached to other morphemes
smallest unit of linguistic meaning or function
closed class
rarely has new words added to it
open class
a category of words that commmonly adds new words
grammatical categories
traditionally called "parts of speech" (noun, verb, etc.)
Functional Category
a word that does not have clear lexical meaning but has a grammatical function, including conjunctions, prep., articles, quxiliaries, complementizers, and pronouns (closed class).
Lixical category
a general term for the word-level syntactic categories of noun, verb, adj. and adver; these are teh category of content words as oppesed to functional category words.
content words
the nouns, verbs, adj., and adverbs that constitute the major part of the vocabulary (0pen class)
American Heritage Dictionary
Had usage panel of respected people and they said what the appropriateness of teh word was (%)
tree diagram/ phrase structure tree
a graphical representation of the linear and hierarchical structure of a phrase or sentence.
structural ambiguity
the phenomenon in which the same sequence of words has 2 or more meanings based on different phrase structure analyses
describes a word, phrase, or sentence with multiple meanings
describes a well-formed sequence of words, one conforming to the rules of syntax
the rules of sentence formation; the componenet of the mental grammar that represents speakers knowledge of the structure of phrases and sentences
10 methods of word formation
derivation, coinage, compounding, auronym, blending, backformation, abbreviating/dipping, eponyms/from names, borrowing, & conversion. (handout sheet).
morphological analysis
look for reccurring forms oand collect data; study log.
monomorphemic word
a word that consists of one morpheme
huckles and ceives
some morphemes have no meanig in isolation but acquire meaning only in combination with other specific morphemes
the morpheme that remains when all affixes are stripped from a complex word
bound morpheme attched to a stem or root (prefix, suffix, infix, cricumfix, stem root)
Inflectional morpheme
bound grammatical morpheme that is affixed to a word according to rules of syntax
words that are opposite
an expression that would once have been redundant, but which societal or technologoical changes have made nonredundant
a word substitued for another word or expression w/ which it is closely associated. i.e. hollywood.
common semantic features words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word. I.e. red, yellow, blue are hyponyms of the word color.
words with the same meaning
words spelled the same
different words spelled the same bu pronounced differently.
words prounced and possibly spelled the same.
lexical ambiguity
multiple meanings of sentences due to words that have multiple meanings
polysemais words
describes a single word w/ several closely related but slightly different meanings. i.e. face is of a person, clock, building.
count nouns
nouns that can be numbered
mass nouns
nouns that cannot ordinarily be enumerated. i.e. milk, water, rice
semantic features
a notational device for expressing the presence or absence of semantic properties by pluses and minuses.
a sentence that occurs within a sentence in a phrase structure tree
semantic properties
the componenets of meaning of a word.

i.e. "young" is a semantic prop. of baby, colt, puppy
the study of the linguistic meaning of a word, morphemes, phrases, and sentences.
an expression that may be unrelated to the meaning of it's parts. I.e. kick the bucket=to die.
a violation of semantic rules resulting in expressions that seem nonsensical.
truth condition
the circumstnaces that must be known to determine whether a sentece is true and therefore part of teh meaning.
complementary pair, gradable pair, and relational opposites
-related antonyms in such a way that the negation of one is the meaning of the other (dead/alive).
-more of one is less of the other(warm/cold).
(parent/child, teacher/pupil).
discourse anaylsis
the study of a linguistic unit that comprises more than one sentence.
the study of how context and situation affect meaning
nonliteral, suggestive meaning "is"
Chapters 1-5
exercises to practice
Ch. 3 #2,3,4
Ch. 4 #7
Ch. 5 #7
refers to words or expressions whose reference relies entirely on context and the orientation of the speaker in space and time.
implicit assumptions about the world required to make an utterance meaningful or appropriate.
speech act
the action or intent that a speaker accomplishes when using language in context, the meaning of which is inferred by hearers.
maxims of conversation
conversational convetions:
quantity, quality, relevance, manner
situational context
knowledge of who is speaking, who is listening, what objects are being disclosed are used to aid in interpretation of meaning.
arbitrariness of language
the property of language, including sing language, wherby, there is no natural or intrinsic relationship between the way a word is prounced and it's meaning.
universal grammar
the innate principles and properties that pertain to the grammars of all human languages.
Bishop Robert Lowth
Wrote " a short Intro. to English, Grammar with critical Notes" in 1762; prescribed a number of new rules for English (most besed on latin grammar) prestige dialect
teaching grammar
a set of language rules written to help speakers learn a foreign language of a different dialect.
prescriptive grammar
rules of grammar brought about by grammaions attempts to legislate what speakers' grammatical rules should be, rahter than what they are
descriptive grammar
a linguist's description or model of the mental grammar including the units, structures, and rules. An Explicit statement of what speakers know about their language.
3 theories of the origin of language
1. language instict
2. complex brains, it's inevitable
3. step by step
autonamy of language
language ability is biologically equipped from birth; does not derive from general human intellectual ability
acquired dyslyexia
loss of ability to read acorrectly following brain damge of persons who were previously literate
aphasia in whihc phonemes are substituted, resulting in nonsense words; often produced by people who have Wemicke's aphasia
a form of aphasia in which one has word finding difficulties
Wernicke's Aphasia
language disorder resulting from damage to the back part of the left hemisphere
Broca's Aphasia
agrammatism; language disorder resulting from damge to the fromnt part of the left hemisphere of the brain in which the patient has difficulty with aspects of syntax, expecially functional categories.
hypothesis that different areas of the brain are responsible for distinct cognitive systems
refers to stimuli that travel between one side of the body and the opposite cerebral hemisphere
term used to refer to cognitive functions localized to one or the other side of the brain
branch of linguistics concerned with the brain mechanisms that underlie the acquisition and use of human language
sign language
used by deaf people in which linguuistic units such as morphemes and wors as well as grammatical relations are formed by manual movements.

Deck Info