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PPE 3004 Chapter 4


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Why did Freud and Jung cease their friendship?
-Jung believed that sexual urges were not the only determinant of an individual’s development

-A person’s goals and motivations were equally important

-Emphasized spirituality over sexuality
Jung believed in archtypes...
That our minds expand beyond ourselves and are connected to other minds present and past
What was Carl Jung's interpretation of the libido (differed from Freud)
Libidnal energy is not confined to biological energy it can be any problem that arises.
Carl Jung proposed the Three principles of the psyche. What were they?
Principle of opposites

Principle of equivalence

Principle of Entropy
Principle of opposites
for every thought there is an equal and opposite way of seeing it or thinking about it.
Principle of Equivalence
the amount of energy is fixed if one removes it from one place it will show up elsewhere.
Principle of Entropy
Tendency toward equalizing energy within a system.
The psyche Jung believed was made up of three components (freud's id, ego and super-ego). What are they?
personal unconscious
collective unconscious
The ego is...

Jung believed it formed around what age...
One’s conscious feelings and thoughts about oneself

4 y.o
The personal unconscious includes freud's...

What is included in the personal unconscious...
pre-conscious and unconscious.

Thoughts and feelings not currently part of conscious awareness
The collective unconscious is...
a deeper level of the unconscious made up of ARCHETYPES.
Archetypes are
emotional symbols that are common to people from the beggining of time.

Somehow connected to your ancestors who somehow influence your behavior.
The persona archetype is...
The socially acceptable “mask” that we present to others
The shadow
Darkest, deepest part of our psyche unacceptable part of our personality.
The anima:
The female element of every man
The anima serves 2 functions what are they:
-Causes men to have feminine traits (intuition, tenderness, sentimentality)

-Provides a framework for a way of relating to women
The Animus
is the male element of every woman
TYhe animus serves two purposes. what are they?
-Causes women to have masculine traits (independence, aggression, competitiveness)

-Provides a framework for a way of relating to women
The self is....

It is the componenet of the psyche that attempts to...

Similar to Freud's...
the total personality

Component of the psyche that attempts to harmonize all others

Ego (middle ground)
Self realization is when...

When does this occur...

symbolized by the...
the self becomes the new center of personality

Never fully; it is approximated.

Jung believed in two ways of using the libidic energy. what were they
introversion and extraversion
What is the difference between the two.
Introversion: An “inward-turning” of the libido
Withdrawal of interest away from outer objects in favor of one’s inner experience

Extraversion: An “outward-turning” of the libido
Movement away from one’s inner experience towards one’s outer experience
How many personality types did Jung outline?

These are made up of a combination of ____ attitudes and _____ functions.
2 ; 4
What are the four rational functions:
Alfred Adler was a socialist he strongly believed in...
the comman man and that the social context in which one lives can significantly influence personality
Adler's organ inferiority and compensation
People are vulnerable to disease in organs that are less developed or “inferior” to other organs.

Stress from the environment may inhibit normal functioning in your weak organ.
Adler believedd Organ inferiority can be compensated in one of two ways. What are they?
-Concentrating on the development of the weak organ

-Emphasizing other functions

so what do we do about it?
All humans start life with feelings of inferiority

Compensations or overcompensation directed toward either real or imagined inferiorities
What is most important about the inferiority a person has...
the person’s perception of an inferiority.
Adler's views on feeling inferior.
Inferiority is NOT a sign a weakness or abnormality

Primary motivating force behind all personal accomplishments
inferiority compex is when...
When a person becomes so overwhelmed by feelings of inferiority that they are prevented from accomplishing anything
Adler's views on superiority.

-where is the drive to be superior inherited
-what is this superiority NOT (always confused as)
All humans strive for superiority or perfection

Master motive and innate to all humans.

Not to be domineering over another person it is achieving wholeness for oneself and society.
Superiority complex
When a person concentrates solely on his or her own superiority while ignoring the needs of others and society
What is alfred adler's biggest achievement?
the idea of the CREATIVE SELF
The creative self is the idea that we are not just products of ___________ and __________. It is how we use our "equipment".
genetics and our environment
the "as if" idea
Innate tendency to assign meaning (fictions) to the sensations we experience
Adler incorporated the fictions in the world to include our preceptions of the "worldview" which is
Worldviews develop based on the individual’s perception of the world

One’s interpretation of early childhood experiences form the basis of one’s worldview
Social interest is the idea that we all...
Need for all humans to live in harmony and friendship with others and to aspire toward the development of the perfect society
what is the measure used to determine someone's social interest? What is the result of a low score?
Indices of normalcy

Tasks to address in life:
1. Societal tasks- creating friendships and social networks
2. Occupational tasks- help to advance society through constructive work
3. Love & Marriage tasks- finding a suitable life partner
mistaken lifestyles

-could be the result of (3 things)
Any lifestyle that is not aimed at socially useful goals

1. physical inferiority
2. pampering/spoiling
3. neglecting
Adler's personality types
-Ruling-dominant-attempts to dominate or rule people

-Getting-leaning-expects everything from others and gets everything they can from them

-Avoiding-⬝succeeds⬝ by avoiding problems; never attempts anything and therefore avoids failure

-Socially useful- confronts problems and attempts to solve them in a socially useful way
Adler's views on the family.

-what three important familial characteristics build a personality?
1.) mother-child relationship (can hurt or help)

2.) Father (can only help)

3.) Birth order
Which birth order did Adler believe was most fortunate?
Second borns.
Horney vs Freud
Horney did not believe all drives were sexual, she believed culture played a much larger role.

She also took offense to his view of women.

Lastly she agreed with his observation but not his interpretations.
horney vs. freud
Horney did not believe all drives were sexual, she believed culture played a much larger role.

She also took offense to his view of women.

Lastly she agreed with his observation but not his interpretations.
what was the one thing Adler, Horney, Freud and Jung agreed upon?
the importance of a child's upbringing
Horney more so than previous psychologists emphasized wthe role of _________ in development.
Basic hostility

-why does this arise in children?
-why does this occur?
Develops if parent’s do not satisfy the child’s needs for safety and satisfaction

ususally as a result of the parent's own neurotic needs.
Basic Anxiety

-what causes this?
When children cannot express the hostility they feel toward their parents and repress it. This causes insecurity and apprehension.
What four characteristics of personality did Horney attribute as defense mechanisms against basic anxiety

- Hint: (WASP)
The neurotic needs of an individual, Horney believed could be categorized into three categories. What are they?
-Moving toward people

-Moving away frm people

-Moving against people
According to Horney "normal people" would have what kind of neurotic needs?
a balance of the three general classes of neurotic needs.
Moving toward people

-described as...
-characterized as...
- rate themselves according to...

Desperately seeking the attention and approval of others.

rate themselves according to what others think.
Moving against people

-described as...
-characterized by...

-motivated by strong needs to exploit others in an effort to feel superior.
-Seldomly admit mistakes.
-play to win
Moving away from people

-described as...
-characterized by...
-biggest fear

Compulsively driven to attain autonomy. build a world of their own.

to need another person
What 2 personalities does Horney suppose we are always involved in intrapsychic battle with...
The ideal self and the real self
The ideal self
attempts to solve problems by painting a perfect picture of oneself.
the real self
tend to despise one's real self.
Early negative experiences impede our tendency to...

-neurotics will actually...
move toward self-realization natural tendency.

create an idealized self and begin to believe it is their real self.
Horney and Feminine psychology

-Penis envy?
Womb envy- envy of pregnancy, childbirth, and motherhood
According to Horney how do men

-overcompensate womb envy
- manifest womb envy
by seeking achievement in their work life.

by reinforcing women's inferior status in the world.
Horney's Flight from womanhood:
Women may choose to deny their femininity as a result of feelings of inferiority as an unconscious wish to be a man.
Horney and Oedipus complex
she believed it existed (as she often agreed with Freud's OBSERVATION). She did NOT think it was sexually related though or univerasl.
Horney: motherhood vs. career.
She understood the conflict and suggested that women should seek their own identity by developing their abilities and pursuing careers.
According to Horney, what was the goal of psychotherapy?
to self actualize. that is, to give up their idealized self and accept their real self.
Klein heavily stressed the importance of the first ____ to _____ months of life.
4 to 6 months
Klein was the first to....
psychoanalyze children
Klen and "objects"

-agreed with Freud that a person undergoes...
- example of an object.
innate drives (including death) and that it was attached to some object.

A mother's breast or hand
Klein's two positions

-why are they positions and not stages.
-what are they?
because you can move back and forth between them.

Paranoid-schizoid position
Depressive position
Paranoid-schizoid position

- why does this occur?
splitting the ego

Instances with the good and bad breast leave baby vulnerable. Baby then must split his ego and introject (take in) the good breast and fears the bad breast.
Depressive position

-when does this occur?
- what happens?
-what is it a result of
occurs when baby is a little older (5 months)

Baby's ego understands that a person can be both good and bad. Fears loosing the mother for fearing her before.

Maturation of the ego
Fantasize taking into their body perceptions and experiences they have had with the external object
Introjects good objects as a protection against anxiety

Introjects bad objects in order to gain control over them
Fantasy that one’s feelings and impulses actually reside in another person and not within one’s body
Keeping apart incompatible impulses in order to manage good and bad aspects of themselves and of external objects
Infants split off unacceptable parts of themselves project them onto another object and finally introject them back into themselves in a changed or distorted form (???)
Projective identification
How did klein differ from freud on the creation of the superego?
1. Much sooner
2. Did not develop out of the Oedipus complex
3. Much more harsh

*By 5-6 years of age superego arouses little anxiety but great guilt
Klein is credited with
Starting play therapy
Why play therapy?
She believed children divulge unconscious and conscious wishes through their play.
erik erikson

-trained by
- realized what about Freud sexual stages
Ana Freud

they were not universal
what three factors did Erickson believe contributed to personality?
What is the theory that helped spur erikson's theory?
the theory of epigenetic principle

Idea that anything that develops has some sort of “ground plan,” with each having its own specified time to develop
Erickson's Crisis and Virtues
Each stage in his theory of psychosocial development has a potential crisis, or developmental problem which either strengthens or weakens the ego and is necessary for individual growth.
interactions between people of a particular culture.
what connect the individual to society, or the way things are customarily done
may develop if the pattern of ritualized behavior becomes too severely stereotyped
Much like Adler, how did erickson view a person's identity?
Erikson did not use the term identity as something that could ever be achieved, or established in a final form.

**saw an individual’s identity as changing and evolving over one’s lifetime
WHAT ARE ERICKSON's 8 stages of development
Trust vs. Mistrust
autonomy vs. shame
initiative vs. guilt
industry vs. inferiority
identity vs role confusion
intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. despair
Erickson's personal vs social identity
Social identity: For some people, the most important part of self may be who they are in relation to others
“I am a good daughter”

Personal identity: For others, the self is best described with introspection
“I am thoughtful”
Margaret Mahler's three step theory of personality development
-Normal autism– the first 3-4 weeks of life, unaware of any other person (objectless stage)

-Normal symbiosis- 5 weeks- 5 months, see mother and self as a “dual unity” (preobjects)

-Separation-individuation- 5 months to 3 years, time of psychological separation, begin to develop feelings of personal identity.
Margaret mahler "theory of symbiosis"
-Symbiotic psychotic – form emotional ties that are so strong that the child is unable to form a sense of self, no autonomy

-Normal Symbiotic – develop empathy and a sense of being a separate and loving person
Kohut's two narcistic needs:
-Need to exhibit the grandiose self (self-inflated ego)

-Need to acquire an idealized image of one or both parents
What did Kohut believe was necessary for the two narcistic needs?
he believed they both needed to occur to develop a healthy personality. He also believed that they needed to change as one got older to better reflect the real self (rather than the grandiose self).

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