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APES Ultimate Card Set

Terms

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Hadley Cell
System of vertical and horizontal air motions that cause major tropical weather patterns
Total Fertility Rate
Average number of children a women will bear in her lifetime
Superfund
Program that identifies and cleans up pollutants from hazardous sites; funded by chemical tax
Gause's Principle
No two species can occupy the same niche
Surface Impoundment
creation of shallow pools that evaporate hazardous liquids
Silvi Culture
The management of trees for the production of timber
By-catch
Any non-targeted species that's caught
Bituminous
Second purest form of coal
Maturation
The conversion of organic matter into petroleum
Silt
0.002-0.05mm
Fundamental Niche
Role and organism would occupy if there was no competion
Vector
The carrier of a pathogen
Lignite
The least pure form of coal
Waste to Energy Program
Energy from waste incineration is used
Transuranic waste
Waste that's left over from the creation of nuclear weapons
Conservation
Use of a resource so that the resource is able to replenish itself naturally
Epilimnion
Uppermost, and most oxygenizationed area of a body of freshwater
El Nino
Causes wetter, warmer summers in Northwest; lighter hurricane season
Upwelling
Process through which nutrient rich waters rise to oceans surface
Coriolis Effect
Northern Hemisphere- Right, Southern- Left
Overburden
The rocks that are removed when mining
Jet Stream
High speed wind current, east to west, at 15-25 km high
Green Revolution
Introduction of new techologies in the 1960's that dramatically increased crop yield and production
Doldrums
Region of ocean near the equator, characterized by calm, light winds (constant low pressure)
Catalytic Converter
Oxidizes VOCs and CO to CO2 in car exhaust
Genetic Drift
Genetic changes based on chance
Monsoon
Temp difference of water and land cause winds to blow in opposite directions
Southern Occolation
atomospheric pressure condtions resulting from the warming El Nino(warm air to S America) and cooling of La Nina (warm air Pacific side)
Crown Fires
Fires in areas that have no recently had a fire
Inner Core
made of nickel and iron (molten)
Acute Affect
Effect caused by short exposure to high level of toxin
Prior appropiation
Water rights given to those who have historically used water in a certain area (common in Western US)
Aggregate
Clouded or massed into a dense cluster, noun or verb
Norman Borlaug
Founder of Green Revolution
Sand
0.05-2mm
Fly Ash
Solid particles that are waste products of the burning of coal
Scrubbers
Devices the contain alkaline substances that remove SO2 from coal burning plants
Ecosystem Capital
Value of natural resources
Biomagnifaction
Increase of conscentration of toxic substance in rising tropic levels
Monoculture
Culturation of a single crop in a region or country
Typhoon
Severe tropical cyclone, occurs in the far east
Old Growth Forest
Forest that has never been cut
Inner Basin Transfer
Tranfer of water from its source
La Nina
Cooling of oceans surface (once every 4-12 years), causes less rain and more hurricanes
Toxicity
The degree to which a chemical is biologically harmful
No Till Methods
Farmers do not plow up the soil
Gangue
Waste material that results from mining
Anthrocyte
Cleanest burning coal, almost pure carbon
Subbituminous
Third purest form of coal
Riparian Right
Use of water is for person who owns the land its own (Eastern US)
Plantation
Forests that are not natural but are planted for forestry
Athenosphere
Part of the Earth that lays directly below the Lithosphere
Horse Latitudes
Two latitudes at about 30-35 degrees N and S, calm light winds, the gap between the n and s easterlies and westerlies
Reproductive Isolation
The phenomon in which two species evolve to be unable to reproduce with one another (NOT geographic isolation)
Earthquakes
Resulted from transform boundary
Edge Effect
The condition effect where at boundaries, there is greater species diversity and biological density
Leachate
A liquid that moves to the bottom of a landfill
Chronic Affect
Long level exposure to low levels of a toxin
Replacment Birth Rate
Number of children a couple must have to replace themselves in the populatiuon
Biotic Potiential
The amount of population that would grow if there were unlimited resources
Ecological Footprint
Amount of earth's surface needed to supply the needs of a particular population
Convection Currents
Air Currents caused by the vertical movement of air caused by atmospheric heating or cooling
Hypolineon
The lower section of a body of freshwater
Niche
The total sum of a species use of biotic and abiotic factors in its environment
Service Fire
Fires that remove underbrush but do not affect trees
Polar Easterlies
Northern: blows from northeast/ Southern blows from southeast
Photochemical Smog
the brown haze that develops in sunny cities. it is formed by the action of sunlight on pollutants such as hydrocarbons and nurtogen oxides. these chemicals react to form a brownish muzture of ozone and other pollutants.
Active Collection
The use of devices to collect, focus, and store solar energy
Ground Fires
Smoldering fires that take place in bogs or swamps underground for weeks
Grey Smog
Smog from industry, esp coal
Deep Well Injection
Drilling a hole below the water table to inject waste
Tailings
Piles of Gangue
Aggroforestry
Trees and crops are planted together, creating a symbiotic relationship
Ecotone
Transitional area where two ecoystems meet
Allopatic Speciation
Specation due to geographic barriers
Preservation
The maintanace of a ecosystem or species to insure its future propogation
Bioaccumulatuion
Accumation of substance in various tissues of living organisms
Logistic Population Growth
Pop grows exponetially until levels off at carrying capacity
Malnutrition
Poor nutrition that results from an insufficiently balanced diet, not lack of caloric intake
Passive Collection
The use of building materials by design to keep a building warm or cool
Thermocline
Region of sharp temp change gradient in body fresh water
Realized niche
The slightly smaller niche an organism occupies than it would in the abscense of competion
Proven Reserve
An estimate of the amount of fossil fuel able to be retrieved from a reserve

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