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Geology Study Guide Ch1

Chapter 1 Geology Study Guide

Terms

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What is the basic premise of the hydrologic cycle
Continous transfer of water from one repository to another.
continental shelves
Below sea level (shallow seas)
Geology is connected to
preventing or correcting environmental damage.
Physical geology
Study of the Earth's composition, structure, and the processes that shape it.
Convergent
Two plates collide and one is forced down under the other into the mantle where it is "recycled." This causes quakes and violent volcanic activity. Deep ocean trenches mark where one plate slips under the other. Volcanic island arcs and continental volcanic arcs form next to them. When two continental plates collide, a great mountain range is formed.
Geology
Scientific study of the Earth and its major systems.
Lithosphere
Crust + uppermost mantle joined as a single rigid unit. Average thickness = 100 km (62 mi). This is what "plates" are made of.
continental slopes
Below sea level (steeper slope that connects shallow sea to deep sea)
Major subdivisions of the geosphere
Oceanic
Geology expands awareness of
How beautiful and complex Earth is.
What is geologic time
Vast spans of time ranging from thousands to billions of years.
What are the components of the hydrologic cycle?
Cycle of Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, Infiltration and Runoff.
Why does geologic time enable us to use ordinary, observable processes to explain most of what we see on earth (uniformitarianism).
Most of Earth's features can be explained by observable processes acting over geologic time spans according to natural laws.
What is the biosphere?
(is this in book?)
What is the hydrosphere
All of Earth's water.
What are the various components of the hydrosphere?
97% is in the oceans. Other natural water sources.
What powers the hydrolic cycle? (see chapter 9 for a discussion of this topic)
Primary Water Source = Oceans. Primary Energy Source = Sun. (? Is this all you want us to know?)
Theory
a hypothesis that has tested true.
Geology expands awareness of
How much our survival depends upon understanding how Earth works.
Which of the components of the hydrosphere contain the majority of its substance?
Oceans.
Historical geology
Study of Earth's history and history of life.
What is the theory of plate tectonics?
Motion and interaction of rigid, interlocking plate-like segments of Earth.
Geology is connected to
assessing and avoiding natural hazards
Metamorphic
formed when rocks recrystallize without melting, due to heat and pressure deep underground.
Oceanic
Thinner, more uniform in thickness, and basaltic composition.
What does it mean when we say that the atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere are in a state of dynamic equilibrium with respect to one another?
changing balance
Crust
Outermost and thinnest part of Earth. Two types exist.
Divergent
Two plates pull apart and move away from one another. As they diverge, magma intrudes into cracks and forms new lithosphere. Almost all occur along the central part (axis) of oceanic ridges. Earthquakes and volcanic activity occur here.
Major subdivisions of the geosphere
Continental
Major subdivisions of the geosphere
Crust
Hypothesis
An attempt to explain the data.
Geology is connected to
obtaining natural resources,
Asthenosphere
Highly deformable (plastic) upper mantle. Allows plates to move.
What is the basic premise of the rock cycle?
Continual transformation of rocks from one type to another.
deep-ocean trenches
Trough-like depressions that are the deepest parts of the oceans.
Continental
Thicker, variable thickness, and granitic average composition.
What is the geosphere
From the Earth's surface to its center.
Sedimentary
formed when rocks weather and erode into sediment that becomes new rock.
Igneous
formed when melted rock (magma) cools and solidifies.
What are its two most abundant components of the atmosphere?
Nitrogen and Oxygen
What is the atmosphere
Gaseous envelope surrounding Earth.
volcanic island arcs?
Curving chains of volcanic islands that are next to a trench.
scientific law
a theory repeatedly tested over many years and never disproved.
oceanic ridges
mountain range extending through all the oceans.
Transform
Two plates are sliding past one another along a transform fault. There is neither creation nor destruction of lithosphere. Quakes and deformation occur. Features on opposite sides of the boundary are offset.
Scientific method
A systematic, logical way of studying how nature works.

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