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7G Science Ch 8

Terms

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asthenosphere
the relatively soft layer of the upper mantle is the _____________
rock samples
geologists use two main types of evidence to learn about Earth's interior, seismic waves and _____?
convection current
the movement of a fluid cause by differences in temperatures, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another.
density
the amount of mass in a given space; mass per unit volume
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move towards each other
outer core
a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
mid-ocean ridge
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
trenches
subduction of the ocean floor takes place at __________
basalt
a dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust
convection
the process that powers plate tectonics is _________
subduction
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
pressure
the force pushing on a surface divided by the area of that surface
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of the Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
mantle
the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
granite
a usually light-colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust.
conduction
the transfer of heat from one particle of matter to another
asthenosphere
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
crust
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
inner core
a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the Earth
seismic waves
vibrations that travel through the Earth carrying the energy released during and earthquake
a convergent boundary
two plates collide with each other at _________
scientific theory
a well tested theory for a wide range of observations or experimental results
conduction
the transfer of heat by the direct contact of particles of matter is ____
convection
the transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
lithosphere
a rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
plate
a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust
divergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
transform boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
deep-ocean trench
a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
sonar
a device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves
fault
a break in the Earth's crust where masses of rock slip past each other
radiation
the direct transfer of energy by electro-magnetic waves

Deck Info

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