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Biology Final

Terms

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glycolysis
the process by which sugars are converted to acids.
mitosis
The replication of a cell to form two daughter cells with identical sets of chromosomes
passive transport
doesnt use energy
anatomy
study of human body
urine
Fluid containing water and waste products. Urine is made by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, and leaves the body through the urethra.
nucleous
rna, blueprints for protein syntheis
centrioles
cellular reproduction; helps make dna
monomers
Small molecules that link together to form a polymer.
concentration gradient
the unequal distribution of ions across the membrane; potassium more highly concentrated inside and sodium more concentrated outside. Sodium/potassium pump keeps sodium concentration higher outside.
schwann
all animals cell
semipermeable
Permitting passage of only certain molecules
carbohydrates
quick and short-term energy structural role when joined with other molecules
lipids
lnog tern energy storage, insulation against heat loss, cushions organs
hypertonic
more solvent outside the molecule than in
adp
Adenosine diphosphate; a molecule that together with inorganic phosphate is used to make ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
interphase
The part of the cell cycle in which the chromosomes are not condensed and the cytoplasm is not dividing
photosynthesis
The process by which green plants use light to synthesize organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water. In the process oxygen and water are released. Increased levels of carbon dioxide can increase net photosynthesis in some plants. Plants create a very important reservoir for carbon dioxide.
cell
highly organized tiny structures with all the living characteristics
microtubules
proteins tubes, flagella of sperm.
PH
0-6.9=acid 7=neutral 7.1-14 base
chlorophyll a
the pigment that makes plants and algae green. Measurement of chlorophyll a is used to determine the quantity of algae in the water.
physiology
study of function of living organisms
brown
first to stain nucleis
4n
double the chromosomes so they can split into two identical daughter cells
cloning
producing organisms all of which contain copies of the same gene: the desired gene is removed from the donor, inserted into a vector (usually a plasmid), the vector is used to transform a host culture, then those hosts which have taken up the vector are selectively cultured.
nucleus
dna, nucleolus, chromosomes, nucleur pores, directs cell activities
solvent
water
dialysis
The process of filtering the blood when the kidneys are not able to cleanse it
smooth er
for lipid production
hooke
first to call a cell a cell. named after where monks lived.
chromatin
Ribbon-like twists of DNA molecules in the nucleus of the interphase.
lactic acid
(2-hydroxypropanoic acid) Found in sour milk and sauerkraut; formed in muscles during exercise.
bacteriology
study or bacteria
autotroph
make food for yourself
calvin cycle
The Calvin cycle is a metabolic pathway that occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts, in which carbon enters in the form of CO 2 and leaves in the form of sugar. The cycle uses ATP as an energy source and NADPH as a reducing agent.
catalysts
A substance that speeds up a reaction without undergoing any permanent chemical change.
eight characteristics of living things
1- reproduction, produce offspring. 2- metabolism- all chemicals reactions in the body. 3- growth and development- growth;size; development;shape. 4- interaction and reaction- stimuli in the enviroment 5. cells- all living things have cells 6. heredity- living things pass on genes 7. homeostasis- adjust to environment 8- death- everything just eventually die
vesicles
pinch off of membranes with proteins
active transport
use energy to move against the concentration gradient
excretion
The loss of ethanol from the body through urine, sweat, breath, and other routes of exit
biology
the study of life
schleiden
all plants have cell
hypotonic
more solvent inside the molecule than out
lysosomes
package by the golgi and contain digestive enzymes " feeling sunburn"
chromosomes
Threadlike bodies found in the nucleus, or center part, of a cell that carry the information of heredity.
chromatid
Each of the two daughter strands of a duplicated chromosome joined at the centromere during mitosis and meiosis
atp
Adenosine triphosphate, a high energy phosphate molecule used to store and release energy for work within the body.
taxonomy
study of classification
virology
study of viruses
urethra
narrow channel through which urine passes from the bladder out of the body.
ribosomes
produces proteins from amino acids
spindle fibers
aggregate of microtubules that move chromosomes during cell division.
homeostasis
adapt to the surrounds around you
telophase
Final stage of mitosis in which the two sets of separated chromosomes decondense and become enclosed by nuclear envelopes.
anaphase
phase of mitosis where sister chromatids separate and daughter chromosomes migrate to opposite poles of the cell.
rough er
produce and transport proteins
heterotroph
cant make food for yourself
regeneration
growth anew of lost tissue or destroyed parts or organs
bladder
a triangular-shaped, hollow organ located in the lower abdomen that holds urine. It is held in place by ligaments that are attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder's walls relax and expand to store urine, and contract and flatten to empty urine through the urethra.
osmosis
The passage of a liquid from a weak solution to a more concentrated solution across a semipermeable membrane that allows passage of the solvent (water) but not the dissolved solids.
virchow
all cells come from other cells
glucose
A simple sugar found in the blood. It is the body's main source of energy; also known as dextrose.
solutions
different sized molecules that dont filter out or move away from each other
suspensions
solutions that huge particles tend to fall out of water. ex. muddy water
enzymes
specifically modified proteins
concentration
the strength of a solution; number of molecules of a substance in a given volume
polymers
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., polypeptides, proteins, plastics)
catalysts
help carry out chemical reactions
colloids
large molecules held in solution and do not filter out ex. saliva, mucous, snot, cytoplasm
carotenes
orange fat-soluble pigments
proteins
function for structure
2n
An organism having two chromosomes of each kind.
golgi apparatus
packages proteins for transport in vesicles
nucleic acids
Long chains of molecules known as nucleotides, that perform important functions in the cell; two kinds of nucleic acids function in the cell, i.e., DNA and RNA.
chlorophyll b
an accessory pigment found in some algae that can effect the accuracy of chlorophyll a determinations
metaphase
A stage in mitosis or meiosis during which the chromosomes are aligned along the equatorial plane of the cell.
diffusion
The movement of atoms or molecules from one part of a medium to another caused by their random thermal motion. The result of diffusion is a tendency for particles to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
vaculoes
storage containers
mitochondria
powerhouse, 95% of energy converted here, cell respiration. atp production, great surface area. dna- own set to control independent functions
cellophane
Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of processed cellulose.
scientific method
define- state problem. gather- gather information. hypothesize- hypothesize the solution, come up with a testable prediction. experiment- test your hypothesis. record- record results. conclusions- analyze results. communicate results.
solute
sugar/ what dissolves in the solvent
xanthophylls
A class of naturally occurring yellow and orange plant pigments added to fish feeds to enhance the color of skin pigments or muscle. In white flesh fish, xanthophylls impart an undesirable yellow color
prophase
stage of mitosis in which replicated chromosomes condense; nuclear membrane dissociates; centrioles migrate to the poles of the cell.

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