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Science Vocab

Vocab Words

Terms

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siesmic waves
an indirect method scientists use to study Earth's interior
conduction
heat transfer within a material or between materials that are touching
convection
heat transfer ny movement of currents within a fluid
convection current
the flow that transfersheat within a fluid
mid-ocean ridge
an under sea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced
mantle
a layer of very hot but solid rock
lithosphere
the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
radiation
transfer of energy through space
granite
light colored rock that has a coarse texture
fault
a break in Earth's crust where masses of rock slip past eachother
transform boundary
a place where two plates slip past eachother, moving in opposite directions
scientific theory
a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observation
convergent boundary
a plavce where two plates come together or converge
continental drift
Alfred Wegener's idea that the continents slowly noved over the Earths surface
sonar
a device that bounces sound waves off underwater objects and then records the echoes of these sound waves
pangaea
the super-continent
basalt
dark rock with a fine texture
sea-floor spreading
the sea floor spreads apart along both sides of a mid ocean ridge as new crust is added
pressure
whar happens when there is a force pressing on an area
rift valley
deep valley that forms when two plates move apart
fossil
any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock
dinsity
the amount of mass in a given volume
asthenosphere
the soft layer just below the lithosphere
plates
seperate sections of the lithosphere
deep-ocean trench
deep underwater canyon
inner core
a dense ball of solid metal
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of the Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by conveciton currents in the mantle
subduction
the process by which ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle
divergent boundary
the place where two plates move apart or diverge
crust
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer skin including dry land and ocean foor
outer core
a layer of molten metal that surrounds the inner core

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