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Gr.7 Inside Earth 1.2,1.3,1.4,1.5


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mid-ocean ridges
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock
continental drift
the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
scientific theory
a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beaneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
heat transfer within a material or between materials that are touching
divergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
a section of the lithospher that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
heat transfer by the movement of currents within a fluid
deep-ocean trenches
a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
a break in Earth's crust where masses of rock slip past each other
sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
transform boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
the transfer of energy through space
Alfred Wegener
German scientist who hypothesized (in 1910) that Earth's continents had moved
convection current
the movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another
the supercontinent that means "all lands"
a device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves

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