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Chapter 16 Vocab

Terms

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vaccine
A(n) ____ consists of a deactivated virus or pieces of viruses/pathogens.
stromatolites
____ are dome-shaped rocks composed of thin layers of sediments pressed together. These rock formations are important because they contain the oldest known fossils on earth.
conjugation
____ is a process in which bacteria cells join together and exchange genetic material.
capsid
The protein coat that surrounds the genetic material of a virus is known as the ____.
host
A(n) ____ is the organism (or cell) that a parasite lives off of.
pathogens
____ are bacteria or any other type of microorganism that causes illness or disease.
bioremediation
____ refers to using living organisms to clean the soil, air or water.
penicillium
____ is the fungus that is responsible for producing the antibiotic known as penicillin.
obligate intracellular parasite
_____ refers to viruses because they cannot reproduce unless they are inside of a host cell. Literally means that the virus has to be inside of a host cell.
binary fission
____ occurs as the genetic material of the bacteria cell duplicates, moves to opposite ends of the bacteria cell and then the cell divides in half.
exotoxins
____ are poisons that are produced by bacteria which consists of proteins that are secreted into the environment and can bind to receptors on host cells.
HIV
____ refers to the human immuno-deficiency virus.
anaerobic
_____ organisms are able to survive in oxygen-poor (or oxygen-free) environments.
endospore
An ____ is a "resting" bacteria cell.
motility
____ refers to the movement of bacteria.
parasite
A(n) ____ is an organism that lives off of another organism (called a host) causing harm to the host organism.
genetic variation
____ is also known as "genetic mixing".
introns
____ are non-coding portions of genes. Archaea have them...but bacteria do not.
pili
____ are short hair-like structures bacteria use to stick to other bacteria.
AIDS
____ refers to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
photoautotrophs
_____ use sunlight and carbon dioxide to produce organic compounds. Plants would be an example of this mode of nutrition.
slimy threads
Bacteria are able to adhere or stick to surfaces by using ____.
thermoacidophiles
____ are Archaea that live in extremely hot and acidic environments.
hygiene
____ refers to conditions or practices (as of cleanliness) conducive to health.
antibiotics
____ are medicines used to slow the growth of, or kill bacteria.
endotoxin
____ are poisonous lipids produced by some bacteria that when inside a host will cause fever, pain, weakness, and eventually shock.
transformation
____ is a form of bacterial genetic variation in which the bacteria cell takes up pieces of DNA from the environment and incorporates this new DNA with its own DNA.
penicillin
____ is an antibiotic produced by a fungus.
methanogens
____ are prokaryotes that produce methane as a waste product.
aerobic
_____ organisms are able to live in oxygen-rich environments.
retroviruses
_____ are viruses that work backwords and reverse the usual DNA to RNA flow of genetic material.
organic molecules
____ are carbon-based molecules associated with living things.
transduction
____ is a form of genetic variation in which a bacteriophage injects its viral genetic material into the bacteria cell.
cocci
Round or sphere-shaped bacteria are known as ____.
chemoautotrophs
____ use chemicals (hydrogen sulfide or ammonia) and carbon dioxide to produce organic compounds. Bacteria near deep sea thermal vents use this mode of nutrition.
flagellum
A(n) ____ is a long, tail-like structure that bacteria use for locomotion.
prokaryotes
____ are organisms that do not have a true nucleus, nor do they have membrane-bound organelles.
halophiles
____ are able to live in extremely salty environments.
bacillus
Rod-shaped bacteria are known as _____.
eukaryotes
____ organisms are organisms that have a true nucleus and have membrane-bound organelles.

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