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chapter 5 Plate tectonics


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divergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
a break in Earth's crust where masses of rock slip past each other
outer core
a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of earth
the transfer of heat from one particle of matter ot another
scientific theory
a well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
a trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock or other substance
continental drift
the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across earths surface
mid-ocean ridge
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced
a rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
the transfer of heat by movement of a fluid
The force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted
the layer of rock that forms Earths outer durcace
convection current
the movement of a fluid caused by differnce in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another
inner core
a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the earth
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithsphere floats
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
transform boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
deep-ocean trench
a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
a dark, dense, igneous rockwith a fine texture, found inoceanic crust
the amount of mass in a given space
sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
seismic waves
vibrations that travel through earth carrying the energy released during a earthquake
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of the Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
the layer of hot, solid material between earth's crust and core
a device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves
a ususally light-colored igeanous rock that is found in continental crust
the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
the direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthensphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust

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