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Terms and concepts of streams and fluvial landforms, glacial landforms, biogeography, and biodiversity.


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Biome characteristics
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Erosion by continental glaciation
bulldozing the hills, scouring of the soil, scouring out valleys that become filled with lakes (finger lakes and great lakes), deranged drainage
Where is biodiversity highest
Equatorial/tropic regions
Marginal glacial deposits of unsorted and unstratified material.
Glacial Deposits
Sediment and rocks deposited from a glacier.
Meandering Streams
The sinuous, curving pattern common to graded streams, with the outer portion of each curve subject to erosion and the inner portion subject to deposition.
Representation of the relationship between stream discharge and precipitation input.
Indian influence on vegetation
A scooped out, amphitheater-shaped basin at the head of an alpine glacier valley.
Paleoindian route to N.A.
a self-regulating association of living plants, animals, and their non-living physical and chemical environments
A break of a river into separate channels; opposite of tributaries.
Zone of Optimum
area where a population is most populous
Where organisms obtain needs
its niche
Basal Slip
Movement of glacial ice along the surface.
Point Bars
Inner portion of a meander, where sediment is redeposited.
Zone of Intolerance
The area outside the geographic range where a population is absent; grades into the zone of physiological stress.
The drop in elevation from a stream's headwaters to its mouth, ideally forming a concave slope.
a large terrestrial ecosystem characterized by specific plant communities and formations; usually named after the predominant vegetation in the region
something that halts the process of succession
Lateral Migration
Lateral movement of a stream caused by erosion and deposition.
the process by which plants produce their own food from carbon dioxide and water, powered by solar energy
Location of Earth's major biomes
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Large quantities of fine-grained clays and silts left as glacial outwash deposits.
Mechanical plucking of rocks by a glacier as it moves.
Term for clay, silt, sand, and gravel transported by running water and deposited in sorted sediment on a floodplain.
Alluvial Fans
Fan-shaped fluvial landform at the mouth of a canyon; generally occurs in arid landscapes where streams are intermittent.
Zone of Stress
area where a population begins to start having trouble surviving
Geographic Range
The total area occupied by a population.
Natural Levees
A long, low ridge that forms on both sides of a stream in a developed floodplain.
Glacial stream deposits of stratified drift of melt-water-fed, braided, and overloaded streams; occurs beyond moraine deposits.
Effect of environmental changes at different times on biogeographic patterns
Tectonic movement moving continents to higher latitudes creating lower temps, warming temps connecting america's allowing dispersal of species, warmer temps causing earlier springs and shorter winters
N.A. Continental Divide
Extensive mountain and highland regions separating drainage basins.
A depositional plain formed where a river enters a lake or an ocean.
Braided Stream
A stream that becomes a maze of interconnected channels laced with excess sediment.
A sharp ridge that divides to cirque basins.
A sharp-pointed peak that forms when several cirque glaciers gouge an individual mountain summit from all sides.
Drainage Divide
Ridges controlling which basin water flows into.
Volume of flow in a river that passes by a cross-section of stream in a given unit of time.
a principle of ecology and biogeography: the more diverse the species population in an ecosystem (both in number of species, quantity of members in each species, and genetic content), the more risk is spread over the entire community, which results in greater overall stability, greater productivity, and increased use of nutrients.
Glacial Polish
Rocks polished by the movement of a glacier.
Drainage Basin
The basic spatial geomorphic unit of a river system.
Speed of the stream/river.
Organism's need to survive
niche-refers to the function or occupation of an organism, its what it does to survive. There are three facets to a niche, habitat, trophic (food) and reproductive.
Biotic and Abiotic factors influencing range
biotic: humans, abiotic: solar energy, few can live without it, so they can't live in dark caves, wells
Calculating Discharge
Channel width x Channel Depth x Velocity
Base Level
A hypothetical level below which a stream cannot erode its valley.
Loss of glacial ice through melting, sublimation, wind removal by deflation.
Atchafalaya River
Possible new route for the Mississippi River to take.
How does glacial ice form
Continual accumulation of snow that recrystallizes under its own weight into an ice mass.
Oxbow Lakes
A lake that was formerly part of the channel of a meandering stream.
Time of arrival of Paleoindians
Glacial Mass Balance
Balance between input (freezing) and output (melting) in a glacier.
a convenient biotic subdivision within an ecosystem; formed by interacting populations of animals and plants in an area
Pollen analyses
A small mountain lake.
The catchment area of a drainage basin.
Mechanical wearing and erosion of bedrock accomplished by the rolling and grinding of particles and rocks embedded in a glacier.
Terraces and their formation
Entrenchment of a river deeper into a floodplain caused by erosion.
How do glaciers move
Internal plastic flow and basal slip.
Cut Banks
Steep bank formed along the outer portion of a meandering stream.
occurs when newer communities (usually more complex) replace older communities of plants and animals (usually simpler)

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