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Geology 2


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Characteristics of Natural Hazards
- magnitude of an event is inversely proportionate to frequency -not randomly distributed -past events can affects future events -un/related events can coincide to amplify the scope of disaster. predicting is not generally possible.
results from human interaction
Global Deaths
Hurricanes (41%) Earthquakes (36%) Floods (14%) 86% occur in Asia due to location and more susceptible living conditions.
Human Response
Proactive: land use planning, building codes, insurance requirements, disaster prep, evacuation, artificial control or reactive.
Disaster and location
MDC= more monetary loss LDC= more fatalities
Human Population Growth
-number one environmental problem -carrying capacity= 9-10 billion people (2050) -growth rate= 1.2% which is exponential
Current Age of Mass Extinction?
1000 species die per year where as the normal rate is 100 per year.
-naturally occurring -inorganic -solid - specific chemical composition - regular internal atomic arrangement (crystalline)
minerals with the same composition but different structure.
minerals with same atomic shape but different composition
Mineral Physical Properties
color, hardness, density, shape, cleavage of fracture, luster, streak, reaction to acid and other special properties such as magnetism or taste.
Earth\'s Crust composition
62.55% Oxygen and 21.22% Silicon
Silicates can be separated by...
structural class or chemical class (which are ferromagnesian and nonferromagnesian). Silica Tetrahedron: SiO(4)(-4)
Ferromagnesian versus Non Ferromagnesian
the latter is lighter, less dense, has a low melting point, can resist weathering and contains more silicon than iron or magnesium. The former is the opposite and contains more iron and magnesium than silicate.
Other mineral groups
Carbonate, sulfates, oxides, hydroxides, Halide, sulfides and native elements.
Ways rocks are formed
-crystallize from molten rock -pre-existing rock is altered by chemical reaction with atmosphere and surface water - pre-existing rock is altered by precipitate from seawater, etc - change in heat, pressure, and/or chemical condition
a solid, cohesive aggregate of minerals or mineral-like materials. Igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic.
All rocks participate in the...
rock cycle= change into other types of rocks
95% of Earths outermost 100km show parent magma/temperature and pressure at time of formation
Molten rock, crystals and volatiles below the Earth;s surface
fluid molten rock that issues from volcanoes or fissures
Particulate material thrown out by volcanoes (ejecta or tephra)

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