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Test 3 studied subjects


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What syndrome is most predictive of adolescent problem drug use?
Alienation, impulsivity, subjective distress as early as age 7. Peer pressure predicts experimentation
What is Thorndike's law of effect?
According to Thorndike's law of effect, a behavior that is followed by a "satisfying consequence" will be likely to occur again
What is the Matching Law?
the relative frequency of responding to an alternative corresponds to the frequency of reinforcement for responding to that alternative.
predictors of re-offense?
.346 age of first offense
.341 age at first contact with the law
.187 length of first incarceration
.058 number of prior arrests
IQ correlation
Identical twins reared together 85%
Identical twins reared apart 70%
siblings reared together 48%
unrelated reared together 30%
WAIS working memory tests
arithmetic, digit span, and letter-number sequencing
Diabetes and Alzheimers risks
The risk for Alzheimer's Dementia is double for those with diabetes and four times greater for those with diabetes who receive insulin.
Undifferentiated Somataform Disorder
One or more physical complaints
6 months
Paired associate task
A paired associate task requires the individual to respond with one member of a pair when presented with the other member.
Serial Learning Task
A serial learning task requires the individual to learn and recall a list of words in a particular order.
% of women who experience post-partum depression with childbirth
10-15 or 20
The difference between feminist and non-sexist therapy
While feminist therapy produces change in personal behavior, that change is more consistently framed within the sociopolitical arena in which it occurs. In contrast, nonsexist therapy, while recognizing sociopolitical influences, also looks at personal change separately.
Stages and prevalence of AIDS dementia
AIDS dementia complex (ADC) has been estimated to affect up to one-third of adults and one-half of children with AIDS.
Stage 0.5 is characterized by minimal or equivocal signs of impairment with no deficits in work or activities of daily living.
A person in Stage 1 has unequivocal evidence of functional, intellectual, or motor impairment but is able to perform all but the most demanding aspects of activities of daily living and can walk without assistance
A person in Stage 2 cannot work or perform demanding activities of daily living and may require assistance when walking.
A person in Stage 3 has significant intellectual impairments and cannot walk unassisted.
Tiedeman and O'Hara career development
They viewed it as a process involving the acquisition of a personal vocational identity. According to these authors, the achievement of a personal vocational identity involves balancing integration (being part of a career field) with differentiation (retaining individuality and uniqueness)
Object Constancy and the A not B error.
At 4-8 months, infants reach for a partially hidden object but stop if the object disappears from view. At about eight months of age, children first provide evidence that they know that objects exist when they are out of view. However, they commit the A-not-B error, which continues to about 12 months of age. The error is to reach for the object in the last place they found it even when they have seen the object moved to another location.
treating phobias in children
Participant modeling has been found to be more useful for childhood phobias involving animals and dental and medical procedures.
Cognitive self-control is an effective treatment for children who fear the dark. It involves several steps: At bedtime, the child first relaxes, then visuals a pleasant scene, and then makes self-statements such as "I am brave. I can take care of myself in the dark." This technique is considered a self-control technique since it is administered by the child him/herself (although the parents are also involved in reminding the child to use the technique and in monitoring the child's progress).
The use of flooding with children is controversial
Systematic desensitization has generally not been found to be particularly effective with children
What substances can produce Withdrawal Delirium?
Of the 11 classes of substances included in DSM, only Alcohol and Sedatives, Hypnotics, or Anxiolytics are associated with Withdrawal Delirium
Child's vocabulary
At 27 months, the child's vocabulary consists of about 300-400 words.

The fastest rate of vocabulary increase occurs between the ages of 30 and 36 months. During this period, the child's vocabulary increases from 300-400 words to about 1000 words.

Between the ages of 3 and 3-1/2 years, the child's grammatical accuracy and sentence complexity increases. His/her vocabulary also increases but the rate of increase is not as great as between 30 and 36 months.
Which parenting style produces anti-social behavior?
Of the parenting styles identified by Baumrind and others, the uninvolved style is most consistent with the parenting characteristics that have been found to predict delinquency and antisocial behavior during adolescence.
Young children describe themselves in what terms at what ages?
early childhood (ages 2-6), children describe themselves primarily in terms of specific behaviors.

beginning of middle childhood (ages 7-8), children start to describe themselves in terms of their physical competencies – e.g., “I’m good at …”

end of middle childhood (ages 10-12), a child’s self-concept becomes increasingly based on personality traits.
Describe Marlatt and Gordon.
Marlatt and Gordon's approach to the definition and treatment of addictions is classified as a social learning approach that combines behavioral and cognitive principles.
According to Marlatt and Gordon, relapse is a failure to maintain a behavior change after treatment and is best avoided by identifying and dealing with its antecedents. (The research has shown that "negative affect" is the most common antecedent of relapse.)
What are "identical elements," originally proposed by Thorndike and Woodworth (1901)?
According to Thorndike and Woodworth (1901), transfer of training is maximized when there are identical elements in the learning and performance settings.
What mediates rates of divorce for women?
rates of divorce are highest for women who marry at a young age, have a lower level of education, live in poorer (low income) neighborhoods, had a child before marriage or within seven months of marriage, and cohabitated before marriage.
What skills decline and when?
Performance on tasks that require manipulation of novel information, list learning memory and inductive reasoning, begins to decline at about age 20.

Verbal comprehension shows increases up to about age 60 and thereafter begins to show some decline.

Arithmetic skills (including speed on arithmetic problems) increases until about age 50 or 60 and thereafter declines.

General information is least affected by increasing age.
What is the Zeigarnik effect?
The Zeigarnik effect refers to the tendency to remember interrupted or uncompleted tasks better than completed ones. The Zeigarnik effect most often occurs in nonstressful situations. Under stressful conditions, the opposite effect is more likely to occur.
Describe Rehm's self-control theory.
Rehm's self-control theory is based on the assumption that depression is related to six deficits in self-control behavior

selective monitoring of negative events

selective monitoring of immediate (vs. delayed) consequences of behavior

stringent self-evaluative criteria

inaccurate attributions of responsibility
insufficient self-reward

excessive self-punishment.

According to Rehm, depressed people focus too much on negative events. Treatment attempts to alter this by encouraging clients to recognize the positive events that occur.
How is substance abuse risk related to aculturation for Native Americans?
The studies have shown that either strong identification with one's own Native American tribe or a bicultural identity is associated with a lower risk for substance use than a strong identification with the mainstream culture only.

Strong identification with the Native American culture is associated with a lower risk for substance abuse.

The highest risk seems to be for those who reject the Native American culture and are highly acculturated into the mainstream.
How long is the delay for a diagnosis of Delayed Onset PTSD
6 months
Describe Lewinsohn's model of depression
Lewinsohn described depression as being primarily the result of a low rate of response-contingent reinforcement. According to his model, when a person’s behaviors – for instance, attempts to interact with family members and co-workers – are not reinforced those behaviors are extinguished. Lewinsohn also proposed that, in addition to eliminating or reducing certain behaviors, a low rate of response-contingent reinforcement elicits pessimism, low self-esteem, and other symptoms that are associated with depression.
Which is the first stage in Kohlberg's conventional level?
Seeking the approval and affection of others is characteristic of the "good boy-good girl" orientation
Amato and Keith's (1991) meta-analysis of the divorce outcome literature found that divorce has the strongest negative impact on children's:
The largest effect size reported by Amato and Keith was for the father-child relationship (-.26). The next largest (-.23) was for conduct problems (misbehavior, aggression, delinquency).
According to DSM-IV-TR, reports of the lifetime prevalence of Bipolar I Disorder range from:
.4 to 1.6%
When do Verbal and Performance IQ begin to decline
Verbal IQ increases until the 50s, is relatively stable until the 70s or 80s, and then begins to decline.
Performance IQ begins to decline in the mid-20s.
The concepts of "job relatedness" and "business necessity" are associated with:
If a selection or other employment procedure is found to be having adverse impact, the employer may be able to continue using the procedure if he/she can demonstrate that it is job related and a business necessity.
concordance rates for schizophrenia
for a parent of an individual who receives a diagnosis of Schizophrenia 6%.
for biological siblings 9%.
for an adopted sibling would be about the same as the concordance rate for members of the general population 1%.
for a biological offspring of one schizophrenic parent is 13%
What are escape and avoidance conditioning?
Escape conditioning is a type of negative reinforcement in which a behavior occurs because it allows the individual to escape an undesirable stimulus or event. (Avoidance conditioning is another application of negative reinforcement. It involves presenting a cue that signals that an undesirable event is about to occur so that the individual can avoid the undesirable event by engaging in the target behavior as soon as the cue is presented.)
Describe Bandura's social learning theory. What are the four steps?
Bandura concluded that observational learning involves four processes: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. The first two of these, attention (attending to and accurately perceiving the behavior), and retention (symbolic processing of the modeled behavior) are cognitive processes.
cognitive events act as intervening variables in the acquisition of a new behavior
Bandura has proposed that reinforcement is more important for performance than learning.
with Schizophrenia, prognosis for future employment is best predicted by what?
the various domains of functioning are relatively independent – previous employment is the best predictor of current employment, past symptom severity is the best predictor of current symptom severity, etc.
When do children become aware of race-related differences? When do they show preference for their own group?
How do the big 5 change after age 80?
agreeableness and acceptance of change increase, while sociability decreases
What is the most valid predictor across different job types?
General mental ability.
Interest tests are good predictors of...?
Bad predictors of...?
good predictors of academic and job choice and job persistence and satisfaction.
not good predictors of job success.
development of visual ability in infants.
children achieve 20/20 vision between 6 and 12 months of age or later.

Sensitivity to pictorial depth cues develops at about 6 months of age.

preference for facial patterns over other visual patterns is apparent by two to three months of age, although there is some evidence that it may occur as early as 9 minutes of age!

discrimination between happy and angry faces and sounds appears at about 7 months of age.
Describe primacy and recency
When there is no delay between exposure to the list and recall, words at the beginning and end of a list are recalled the best and to about the same degree. However, when there is a brief delay words at the beginning of the list are recalled best.
What is Patterson's model of delinquency?
adolescent delinquency is traceable to unskilled and inefficient childrearing by the child's parents, high levels of punishment, and a tendency to react to a child's negative actions in kind. Patterson's model is consistent with a social learning approach (i.e., it emphasizes the impact of modeling/imitation and reinforcement)
Describe the elements of Bronfenbrenner's system
the child's environment that affect him/her directly (e.g., school and home).

the interactions between elements of the microsystem (e.g., the interaction between home and school).

factors that indirectly affect the child (e.g., the parents' workplaces and social networks).

cultural values and customs, the economic system, etc.
Which are the best predictors of age-related memory change?
First, processing speed, and then working memory.
What is differential reinforcement?
A method of reducing an undesirable self-reinforcing behavior by providing a reinforcer after each predefined interval of time that the individual does not engage in that behavior but, instead, engages in other behaviors.

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