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Psychology Test 5

Terms

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Motivation
Factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-oriented behavior.
Instinct
Fixed, inborn patterns of response that are specific to members of a particular species.
Instinct Theory
Belief that all behavior is motivated by instincts.
Need
A state of deprivation or deficiency
Drive
State of bodily tension, such as hunger or thirst, that arises from an unmet need.
Primary Drives
Innate drives, such as hunger and thirst, that arise from basic biological needs.
Secondary Drives
Drives that are learned or acquired through experience such as the drive to achieve wealth.
Arousal Theory
Belief that whenever the level of stimulation dips below an organisms optimal level, the organism seeks ways of increasing it.
Incentive
Rewards or other stimuli that motivates us to act.
Incentive Value
The strength of the pull of a goal or reward.
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation reflecting a desire for internal gratification, such as the self-satisfaction derived from accomplishing a particular goal.
Extrinsic motivation
Motivation reflecting a desire for external rewards, such as the wealth or respect of others.
Lateral Hypothalamus
Involved in initiating, or turning on eating
Ventromedial Hypothalamus
Involved in regulating feelings of safety; signals when to stop eating.
Neuropeptide Y
Stimulates appetite and eating
Set Point Theory
Belief that brain mechanisms regulate body weight around a genetically predetermined set point.
Anorexia
Form of self-starvation that results in an unhealthy and potentially dangerously low body weight
Bulimia
Repetitive pattern of binge eating followed by purging.
Most likely to develop eating disorder
Young, White Females
3 components of emotion
Bodily Arousal, Cognition, Expressed Behavior
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Belief that mimicking facial movements will induce an emotion
Duchenne Smile
A genuine smile that involves contraction of a particular set of facial muscles
Amygdala
Evaluates whether stimuli is a threat or not
James-Lange Theory
Belief that emotions occur after people become aware of their physiological responses to the triggering stimuli.
Cannon-Bard Theory
Belief that emotional and physiological reactions to triggering stimuli occur almost simultaneously
Two-Factor Model
Theory that emotions involve two factors: a state of general arousal and a cognitive interpretation (or labeling) of the causes of the arousal.
Lie Detector Test
Polygraph is the devise used; measures several of the physiological responses associated with emotion (perspiration, cardiovascular, breathing)
Id
Unconscious drives and instincts; self-serving, irrational, and totally unconscious. Follows the pleasure principle: wishes to have its desires satisfied instantly and regardless of consequences
Ego
Largely conscious, "executive" part of personality. Follows the reality principle: delays action until it is practical and/or appropriate.
Superego
Moral guardian of the conscience
Imposes guilt, shame, etc. Follows the moral principle: satisfying needs that are morally correct.
Defensive Mechanism
used by the ego to prevent anxiety-evoking ideas or impulses from entering the conscious.
Repression
Banishes anxiety-evoking thoughts, feelings, and memories from the conscious. (Girl forgets sexual abuse).
Regression
Individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual state, where some psychic energy remains fixated (woman returns to mother every time she has an argument with husband)
Displacement
Shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening person or object.
(Man redirects anger from boss to family).
Denial
Refusing to acknowledge a threatening impulse or desire.
Reaction Formation
People may express feelings that are opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings. (Woman who fears sexual urges becomes very religious)
Projection
People disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing it to others (Man with a strong desire to have an affair accuses wife of having one)
Freudian Slip
Say whats on your mind by accident.
Erogenous Zone
Parts of the body that are especially sensitive to sexual or pleasurable stimulation.
Fixations
Constellations of personality traits characteristic of a particular state of psychosexual development, resulting from either excessive or inadequate gratification at the stage.
Correct order of each stage
Oral (birth to 18 months), Anal (18-36 months), Phallic (3-6 years), Latency(6-12), Genital(puberty to adulthood)
Anal retentive
Personality that is a perfectionist, and excessive needs for self-control expressed through neatness, etc.
Anal-expulsive
personality that is messy, lacks self-discipline, and carelessness
Phallic Stage
Oedipus/Electa Complex; castration anxiety/penis envy.
How do boys resolve the oedipus complex?
They forsake their incestuous wishes for their mother and identify with their rival (father).

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